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Lecture

Anthro Lecture Notes (1-27-14)

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHRO 2A
Professor
James Egan
Semester
Winter

Description
Anthro 2A – 1/27/14 **Midterm this coming Wednesday – Scantron F-288 – 35 multiple choice questions – 33% of course grade – will pull off from study guide, 1 essay 1. Production A. People must interact with environment B. Using things require human labor C. Labor everywhere is socially organized – what are the tasks that need to be done & who is going to do them? D. Intro ^^^ E. Techniques of Production (4 classic throughout time throughout the world people have used) 1. Strategies: a. Foraging – hunting/gathering, collection of resources b. Pre-Industrial Agriculture – mostly plants, sometimes animals; forms of energy used are muscle power, not mechanical power, humans working or oxen pulling -Extensive and Intensive Forms: how much energy you put in to get out of it *little energy in each field – Extensive, extend the land to get more *a lot of energy in a little plot of land to get a lot out of it – intensive c. Pastoralism – herding animals, but not pigs d. Industrialism – involves very large-scale mechanized productive systems; special sources of energy – fossil fuels, nuclear, hydroelectric, etc; production on a massive scale – factories; extremely productive but at a cost; energetically inefficient though F. Techniques, not social types! 1. People mix techniques a. Transluminence – shift in different techniques in different seasons of the world; pronounced differences between seasonality’s; when to harvest/herd one thing and when not to b. Nuer of S. Sudan -1930s – tended cattle – cattle pastoralists? -Marked seasonality: rainy season and dry season – affected by monsoons *rainy season: flooding of Nile River ~Landscape floods ~Villages on “higher” ground ~Agriculture (horticulture) – grow miller (grain) *dry season: will move to the rivers with their cattle and set up cattle camps ~fishing – type of foraging ~Wage labor at industrial centers -Ground pretty flat but some differences of elevation but difference during rainy season 2. Change between techniques doesn’t always follow unilinear evolutionary models a. ex) San Foragers of Kalahari Desert in S. Africa -Bows & arrows – primitives -But broader history and economy of Africa – glass beads found from central Asia -Tended cattle of overlords on land -mined copper; some worked for wages on Dutch/German farms in S. Africa 2. Foraging A. Overview 1. Hunting and gathering – diversity in foragers 2. Found in small population densities; today for past century – living in mostly marginal (not best quality land) areas; pushed into those areas by larger agriculture communities; not isolated, just pushed 3. ex) Eskimos today – snowmobile and rifle, not sled dogs and spears 4. Many different kinds of foragers B. BG: San Foragers in the Kalahari Desert 1. Environment of Kalahari: desert but not bleak like the Sahara; animals and rainfall similar to SoCal 2. But still implications for living: material conditions a. Small groups, 20-50 people comprising a band
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