Anthro 2A.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Thomas Douglas

Anthro 2A 1-2-11 • Anthropology = the study of humans, or the study of people. (The study of man) • Four Subfields of Anthropology o Biological Anthropology o Linguistics o Archaeology o Cultural and Social Anthropology • Biological Anthro o Human Evolution o Early Humans o Bipedalism o Big Brains o Culture and communication o Primate comparisons o Put humans back into the animal kingdom • Archaeology o Artifacts of human cultural production o Reconstruction of pre-history o Development of civilization; urban areas, cities, agriculture, writing, pottery, technological changes • Linguistics o Studies the varieties of languages; history of languages. o How language is used in daily lifel o The substructure or deep structure of language. • Language and Hybridity o Languages excellent example of how culture is shared, moves around o English not pure [even though John Adams in 1780 thought it was and should be kept that way] • Language and Cultural Migration o Kindergarten = German o Smorgasbord = Swedish o Sugar = Sanskrit o Opera = Italian o Boondocks = Tagalog o Pal = Romany o Polo = Tibetan o Pajamas = Persian o Zoo = Greek o Skill = Danish o Camel = Hebrew o Shampoo = Hindi o Aphorism = Greek o Mongrel = English o Tattoo = Tahiti o Reared a child = Anglo-Saxon o Raised a child = Norse (Vikings) o 0, 1, 2, 3 …. = Arabic o Alcohol = al-kuhl = Arabic o Groundhog, Lightning rod, belittle, slamdunk, to google = American • Language and Who We Are o Sapir – Whorf hypothesis: language frames how we think o A person accidentally knocks a cup off a table and it broke:  English: He broke it.  Spanish and Japanese: The cup broke itself o English assigns agent, blame; affects memory • Language and metaphors o English and Time: o Time horizontal  Past  Future o Mandarin speakers, time both horizontal and vertical o New events ermerge from below and past above. • Cultural and Social Anthropology o Description and analysis of cultures and social groups; o Examines socially learned traditions and beliefs; o Ethnography and Ethnology o Comparative Method o Holistic • Why Anthropology Important o Culture diversity and globalization o Medical Care o Law o Business 1-5-11 • Major cultural Transformations in Human History o Transition to becoming humans  7-5 million years ago  LUCY and Australopithecines • 3.5 million years ago • Walked upright • 1.2-1.4 meters tall • Brain 35% of humans • Not good at using tools  Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus [2.3-1.4 million years ago] • Handy tools  Neanderthals [600,00-30,000 years ago]  Modern Humans • 100,000 years ago or so • Humans faced extinction 70,000 years ago • Reproduced like rabbits  Early Humans • Hunters and Gatherers • 50,000 years ago leave human culture productions through art • Second major chang in cultural transformations o Climatic change about 12,000 years ago o 8-9 million people at time o Hunters and gatherers to settled groups o • Third major change o Neolithis Revolution = agriculture  Middle Eastern farmers to Europe = 3,000 years  Tensions between farmers and hunters-gatherers • Fourth Major Change o Urbanization; towns o Hydraulic agriculture and central planning o Administrative and religious specialist o Class systems o War • Fifth Major Change o Industrial Revolution o Capitalism, capitalist culture, consumerism o Proletarianization o Nation-state building o Population and about 1 billion at start of industrial revolution – now over 5 billion o Many people still live outside state power • Cultural Transformations and Diversity o Each change left some behind o Invidious comparisons:  Hunters-Gatherers  Pastoralists  Village folk  Urban folk  Industrialized o From The Gifts of the Jews by Thomas Cahill  “But to the human hordes of Amorities – Semitic nomands wandering the mountains and deserts just beyong the pale of Sumer 00 The tiered and clustered cities, strung out along the green banks of the meandering ….” • Comparison and Differentian o All human, but not all the same o Construction of the world • Concept of Culture o What culture does  A way of knowing the world  A set of blinders o Definition of Culture  Edward Tylor (1871) “Culture, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole  Malinowski (1944) “Culture is the integral whole consisting of implements and consumer goods, of constitutional charters of the various social groupings, of human ideas and crafts, beliefs and customs.”  Ruth Benedict (1935) “A culture is more or less consistent pattern of thought and action.”  Clifford Geertz (1973) “Culture is an historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life.” • Aspects of Culture o Culture is learned o Culture is shared o Culture is taken for granted o Culture is not a thing; culture evolves and transforms o Culture provides order and meaning to the world o All humans have culture 1-7-11 • Aspects of Culture o Why did humans need culture? o Culture allows us to go beyond the constraints of our biology o Relatively weak animals! • Culture and Biology o Culture builds on biology o Humans dependent on culture for survival o
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