Week 8 Notes.docx

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Thomas Douglas

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Week 8 Notes Marx – claimed that class conflict would lead to a revolution. Capitalism would end up being overthrown. Gramsci – was concerned of what didn’t happen when he was in prison (successful revolution) He argues that hegemony has worked to prevent a revolution. (empowering dominant class because people accept that the dominant class is choosing what’s best for them.) Hegemony is primary promoted by “traditional intellectuals” During the feudal period in Europe, the church During capitalism it was education. Counter hegemony – is Gramsci’s solution to hegemony. Who would provide “counter-hegemony?” –The Organic intellectuals Marx emphasized work and the economy Gramsci emphasized thinking and Ideology Louis Althusser –French Borrows some ideas from Gramsci, to recreate his concept of “ideological state apparatuses” Captialists dominate society and is empowered, and the state is the tool used by those empowered. His big question is “How does capitalism maintain itself?” or how is it reproduced. (what keeps it functioning year after year) Answer in two parts: 1. How is capitalism reproduce… By other capitalists! They provide machinery. Material needs are met by other capitalist who are part of the public sphere. In public sphere, there is a network of capitalist working together meeting each others needs. They control the state 2. Workers must come from outside of the public sphere. Workers come from the “private” sphere where they are reproduced. Who? He argues that workers are being reproduced by the family and by the schools, education. How and why are workers prepared for capitalism? Not usually by force or violence – rather it is through learning and ideology of being a good worker. Althusser claims that the state is the tool of the dominant class. Capitalist “control” the state. The state operates in two very different ways: 1. State as a repressive force – use of violence! State uses the “repressive state apparatus” Prisons, police, courts 2. State as an Ideological force The state usually operates through ideological acceptance of state power. Where does the acceptance of social inequality and the ideology it involves come from? Family, School (like Gramsci), Religion, Culture, Political Parties, Mass Media Altusser promoted a perspective of society building upon both public and private aspects (or domains or spheres) Capitalism happens in the public sphere Reproduction of workers happens in the private sphere Michelle Rosaldo – Feminist Anthropologist • Argued that the public sphere is controlled or dominated by men • Private sphere is controlled or dominated by women • Women are caregivers → stuck in the home Jane Collier & Sylvia Yanagisako • Argue that Rosaldo’s dichotomy of public and private could not be applied to all societies. Rosaldo’s dichotomy was the result of Victorian thought Some Victorian influences on Rosaldo’s dichotomy Herbert Spencer • Women are biologically the “natural” caregivers. Emile Durkheim • Argued that men
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