Week 8 Notes
Marx – claimed that class conflict would lead to a revolution. Capitalism would end
up being overthrown.
Gramsci – was concerned of what didn’t happen when he was in prison (successful
He argues that hegemony has worked to prevent a revolution. (empowering
dominant class because people accept that the dominant class is choosing what’s
best for them.)
Hegemony is primary promoted by “traditional intellectuals”
During the feudal period in Europe, the church
During capitalism it was education.
Counter hegemony – is Gramsci’s solution to hegemony.
Who would provide “counter-hegemony?” –The Organic intellectuals
Marx emphasized work and the economy
Gramsci emphasized thinking and Ideology
Louis Althusser –French
Borrows some ideas from Gramsci, to recreate his concept of “ideological state
Captialists dominate society and is empowered, and the state is the tool used by
His big question is “How does capitalism maintain itself?” or how is it reproduced.
(what keeps it functioning year after year)
Answer in two parts:
1. How is capitalism reproduce… By other capitalists! They provide machinery.
Material needs are met by other capitalist who are part of the public sphere.
In public sphere, there is a network of capitalist working together meeting each
others needs. They control the state
2. Workers must come from outside of the public sphere.
Workers come from the “private” sphere where they are reproduced. Who?
He argues that workers are being reproduced by the family and by the schools,
How and why are workers prepared for capitalism?
Not usually by force or violence – rather it is through learning and ideology of being
a good worker.
Althusser claims that the state is the tool of the dominant class.
Capitalist “control” the state.
The state operates in two very different ways:
1. State as a repressive force – use of violence!
State uses the “repressive state apparatus”
Prisons, police, courts
2. State as an Ideological force The state usually operates through ideological acceptance of state power.
Where does the acceptance of social inequality and the ideology it involves come
Family, School (like Gramsci), Religion, Culture, Political Parties, Mass Media
Altusser promoted a perspective of society building upon both public and private
aspects (or domains or spheres)
Capitalism happens in the public sphere
Reproduction of workers happens in the private sphere
Michelle Rosaldo – Feminist Anthropologist
• Argued that the public sphere is controlled or dominated by men
• Private sphere is controlled or dominated by women
• Women are caregivers → stuck in the home
Jane Collier & Sylvia Yanagisako
• Argue that Rosaldo’s dichotomy of public and private could not be applied to
Rosaldo’s dichotomy was the result of Victorian thought
Some Victorian influences on Rosaldo’s dichotomy
• Women are biologically the “natural” caregivers.
• Argued that men