BIO SCI 94 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Phytophthora Infestans, Archaea, Gametophyte

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5 Feb 2017
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Bio 94 Lec 9
Define protists and explain why protists are considered a paraphyletic group.
Eukarya: One of the three domains of life, consisting of
unicellular organisms: most protists, and also yeasts (which are fungi)
multicellular organisms (fungi, land plants, animals, some algae )
Distinguished by
a membrane-bound cell nucleus
numerous organelles
an extensive cytoskeleton
Adjective: eukaryotic.
Protists: Eukaryotes that are not Fungi, Land plants or Animals
Protists tend to live in environments where they are surrounded by water.
Summarize the ecological and medical importance of protists.
~Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium, a parasitic protist. People with
malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop
severe complications and die.
~A single-celled Plasmodium is far more complex than any of the cells in our own bodies.
~Protists include the most elaborate of all cells, cells that carry out the basic functions
performed by all of the specialized cells, tissues, and organs of a multicellular organism.
Although Plasmodium is well studied, researchers have yet to find effective and sustainable
measures to control it
~Plasmodium has evolved resistance to drugs used to control its growth
~Because it evolves so quickly, researchers have been unable to develop a vaccine against it
(although some are in development)
~Natural selection has favored mosquitoes that are resistant to the insecticides used to attempt
to control the spread of malaria.
Summarize the ecological and medical importance of protists.
~Several types of protists can cause human disease, and some also cause disease in our crops.
~The most spectacular crop failure in history, the Irish potato famine of 1845, was caused by
the protist Phytophthora infestans. Almost a million impoverished and starving Irish people
migrated to the US to escape this famine. Many died on the ships coming over.
~Protists play a very important role in the global carbon cycle.
~They function both as primary producers (autotrophs) and as decomposers and scavengers
A public health problem sometimes arises when humans eat shellfish that have
A. eaten photosynthetic protists during an algal bloom
B. been exposed to nitrogen fixation
C. eaten photosynthetic archaea during an algal bloom
D. been overcooked
Describe the diversity of feeding, locomotion, and reproduction seen in protists.
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