BIO SCI 94 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Paraphyly, Cyanobacteria, Metagenomics

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5 Feb 2017
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BIO 96 LEC 8
~“Prokaryotic" is an adjective used to describe organisms that lack a membrane-bound
nucleus.
The lineages in the domains Bacteria and Archaea are ancient, diverse, abundant, and
ubiquitous
The oldest fossils found thus far are of 3.5-billion-year-old bacteria
Eukaryotes do not appear in the fossil record until 1.7 billion years later
The bacteria and archaea are often referred to as "the prokaryotes" (noun, plural form).
This grouping is an example of a ?
A) monophyletic group
B) paraphyletic group
C) polyphyletic group
Vocabulary: Microbe Any microscopic organism, including bacteria, archaea, and
various tiny eukaryotes.
Microbes that cause disease are said to be pathogenic
Only a tiny fraction of the bacterial species living on
and in the human body are pathogenic
Pathogenic bacteria come from many lineages
Pathogei ateia ted to affet tissues at the od’s
entry points
Koch’s postulates (1985) are used to confirm a causative link between a specific infectious
disease and a specific microbe:
1. The microbe must be present in individuals suffering from the disease and absent from
healthy individuals
2. The organism must be isolated and grown in a pure culture away from the host
organism
3. If organisms from the pure culture are injected into a healthy experimental animal, the
disease symptoms
should appear
4. The organism should be isolated from the diseased experimental animal, again grown in
pure culture, and
demonstrated to be the same as the original organism
Koh’s epeietal esults wee the fist test of the
Germ theory of disease:
• The patte opoet is that soe diseases ae ifetious • The poess esposile fo this
pattern is the transmission
and growth of certain bacteria and viruses
Metagenomics: The inventory of all the genes in a community or ecosystem by sequencing,
analyzing, and comparing the genomes of the component organisms. Also called environmental
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