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BIO SCI 94 Lecture Notes - Punctuated Equilibrium, Polyploid, Neoteny

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Nancy Aguilar- Roca

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Mon, 1/6
1. Define the 3 domains of life.
1. Bacteria
a. Prokaryotes
b. Important for ecosystems, human disease, health, etc.
c. Bacterial systems inside humans
2. Archaea
a. Prokaryotes
b. Live in extreme habits – extreme salts, cold, etc.
3. Animalia
a. Eukaryotes
2. Explain the phrase “unity in the diversity of life.”
Despite all the diversity, there are things that unite us. Example, DNA – we all
have the same four nucleotides of DNA.
3. Describe a “family tree” of organisms.
4. State a hypothesis.
A tentative answer to a well-framed question – an explanation on trial
5. Recognize a “controlled” experiment.
One that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group
Wed, 1/8
6. Compare and contrast Lamark’s Hypothesis of Acquired Characteristics and Darwin’s
Hypothesis of Natural Selection.
Lamark: life evolves as environments change
-1. Use and disuse idea: body parts used become extensively larger, those not
used deteriorate
-2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: organisms pass these modifications
to offspring
Darwin: process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to
survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those
7. Compare and contrast artificial selection and natural selection.
Artificial selection: species are modified over many generations by selecting and
breeding individuals that possess desired traits
Natural selection: species modified over many generations naturally through
competition, environment, etc.
8. Define natural selection and adaptation.
Adaptation: inherited characteristic of organisms that enhance their survival and
reproduction in specific environments
9. Explain an example of evolution by natural selection.
Soapberry bugs’ beaks adapt to their environment’s native food
10. Define and give examples of homology, homologous structures, vestigial structures,
convergent evolution, and analogous structures.
Homology: similarity resulting from common ancestry
Homologous structures: represent variations on a structural theme that was
present in a common ancestor
-i.e., human arm, cat arm, whale fin, bat wing
Vestigal structures: remnants of features that served a function in the organism’s
-i.e., skeletons of snakes retain vestiges of pelvis and leg bones of walking
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Convergent evolution: when distantly related organisms resemble each other; the
independent evolution of similar features in different lineages
Analogous structures: structures that resemble each other as a result of
convergent evolution; have same structure but different functions
11. Interpret evolutionary trees.
Fri, 1/10
1. Recognize sources of genetic information.
a. Formation of new alleles (mutations)
b. Altering gene number or position (chromosomal changes)
c. Rapid reproduction (high mutation rate)
d. Sexual reproduction (crossing over, independent assortment, fertilization)
2. State the assumptions for the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
a. Large population
b. No gene flow
c. Completely random mating
d. No natural selection
e. No mutations
3. Apply the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine whether or not evolution is occurring in
a population.
P2 + 2pq + q2 = 1  genotypic alleles
P + q = 1  phenotypes
4. Compare and contrast genetic drift, founder effect, and bottleneck effect.
-Genetic drift: chance events cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably
from one generation to the next, especially in small populations; ALWAYS
-Founder effect: When a few individuals become isolated from a larger
population, the smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool
differs from the source population
Accounts for relatively high frequency of certain inherited disorders
among isolated human populations
-Bottleneck effect: sudden change in environment drastically reduces size of
population; frequencies of alleles are all altered
5. Explain why gene flow is important.
Gene flow = the transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to movement of
fertile individuals or their gametes
Can introduce genes to a population  increasing genetic variation
Can make distant populations genetically similar to one another,
reducing the chance of speciation, by moving genes around
6. Graph the effect of directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection for a trait.
7. Defend the following statement: “Through natural selection, populations adapt to their
environment, but the adaptations may not be ideal.”
Mon, 1/13
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