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Lecture

BIO SCI 94 Lecture Notes - Organism, Carl Linnaeus


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Catherine Loudon

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of 1
Lecture 1
Diversity of Living Organisms
Classification
Interpretation of diversity in evolutionary context
Organisms
Made of one or more cells
Cells are made by other cells
Genetic material: double-stranded DNA
Individual organisms are generated by other organisms of same species (rare exceptions, e.g.
hybrids)
Classification
Hierarchical (nested, subsets) and is based on shared characteristics
Carolus Linnaeus (1700s), animal kingdom and plant kingdom
Established convention for naming species that is still used today
Two words: genus species, Ex: Homo sapiens (our species)
Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain
More kingdoms added: protozoans (1800s), bacteria (1930s), fungi (1960s)
Patterns in Organism Diversity led to the Theory of Evolution
Similarity between organisms reveals relatedness.
1858, Darwin and Wallace proposed that all species are related by descent from a common
ancestor (more similar species are more closely related).