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Lecture 86

BIO SCI 94 Lecture Notes - Lecture 86: Sacrum, Cervical Vertebrae, Occipital Condyle


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIO SCI 94
Professor
Michael Clegg
Lecture
86

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Aves (lab)
RememberthefollowingdistinctivefeaturesoftheclassAves:1.
Feathers-
Bill-
Fusedbones-
Endothermic-
Amnioticegg-
Internalfertilization
-
Keeledsternum
-
Whatfeaturesofthebirdsallowthemtofly?2.
Itspectoralisandsupracoacoideusmuscles-
Bonesarefusedtogetherandhollowmakingthemmuchlighter-
Birdsandreptilesbothhaveasimplemiddleearwithonlyonebone(namedcolumella).Howisthat
differentthanmammals?
3.
Stapes(stirrup)-
Incus(anvil)-
Malleus(hammer)-
Amammal'smiddleearconsistof3bones
Columella
Bridsandreptilesearconsistof1
bone
Mostlyfused(nosutures)-
Elongatedmandible(lowermadeof56bones)-
Noteeth-
Largeorbitsseparatedbyaninterorbitalseptum-
Singleoccipitalcondyle-
Lookatabirdskullandnotethefollowingstructuresandfeatures:4.

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Allowsforaveryflexibleneck
Theyhavemorecervicalvertebraeandaremorevariablethananyothergroup
Vertebra-
Synsacrum‐ severalthoracic,lumbarandsacralvertebraefusedtogether-
Sternum‐ flatandbroad,allbutflighlessbirdshaveakeel-
Scapulalongandslender-
Claviclesfusedtogethertomakeawishbone
-
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpometacarpus(fused)
3digits
Wings:-
Femur
Tibiotarsus(tibiaandfibulafused)
Tarsometatersus
4digits(exceptostrichhave2)
Hindlimbs-
Lookattheskeletonorbonesofabirdandnotethefollowingstructuresandfeatures:5.

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