BIO SCI N120A Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Adrenal Tumor, Adrenal Gland, Adrenal Medulla

9 views2 pages
24 Jul 2019
School
Professor
Professor Nicholas
Course Code 06204
N120A
4 units
Lecture
Endocrine:
Posterior pituitary = neurosecretory like oxytocin and ADH
Anterior pituitary = hormones like TSH (thyroid), ACTH (adrenal cortex), FSH/LH
(testes and ovaries), GH (body), PRL (mammary glands), and endorphins (brain pain
receptors)
Hashimoto’s Disease
o Hypothyroidism, autoimmune
o Symptoms: weight gain, depression/mania, fatigue, panic attacks,
brady/tachycardia, cramps/migraines, memory loss, infertility, hairloss, muscle
weakness
o Treatments: anti-inflammatories
Short term stress response: nerve cell spinal cord adrenal medulla NE, E
o Blood glucose, BP, breathing rate, metabolic rate increases, digestive and kidney
activity decrease
o Hypothalamus to spinal cord through Ach
Long term stress response: hypothalamus releases CRH to anterior pituitary which
releases ACTH to blood vessels that connect to the adrenal cortex
o To mineralocorticoids: Bp up, retention of Na and H2O
o To glucocorticoids: blood glucose up, immune system repressed b/c thymus gland
srhinks overtime and so fewer T cells are produced
Glucocorticoids are steroids that suppress the immune system (use old cheat sheet)
Cushing’s Syndrome: too much cortisol and glucocorticoids
o Can be from pituitary or adrenal tumor
o Too much ACTH to adrenal gland
o Symptoms: obesity, buffalo humps, osteoporosis, swollen face, infertility, stretch
marks, rashes, acne, muscle weakness, poor wound healing
o Treatments: Niazoral -- decreases cortisol production
Multiple Sclerosis: attacks myelin sheath, can’t move legs b/c AP’s aren’t conducting
o Treatment: anti-inflammatories b/c immune response attacking sheath
Addison’s Disease: not enough cortisol or hormones
o Symptoms: low BP, heart atrophy, hypoglycemia, anorexia, confusion, slurred
speech, fever, convulsions, lethargy, fainting, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain,
weight loss, loss of hair, darkening pigmentation, low Na, High K and Ca in blood
o Treatment: corticosteroids
Tests:
o Saliva test: cortisol levels
o Cortisol in blood
o 24 hour urine test
Autoimmune:
B cells:
o Mature in the bone marrow
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