Week 1-2 Learning Objectives

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Biological Sciences
Nancy Aguilar- Roca

Mon, 1/6 1. Define the 3 domains of life. 1. Bacteria a. Prokaryotes b. Important for ecosystems, human disease, health, etc. c. Bacterial systems inside humans 2. Archaea a. Prokaryotes b. Live in extreme habits – extreme salts, cold, etc. 3. Animalia a. Eukaryotes 2. Explain the phrase “unity in the diversity of life.” Despite all the diversity, there are things that unite us. Example, DNA – we all have the same four nucleotides of DNA. 3. Describe a “family tree” of organisms. 4. State a hypothesis. A tentative answer to a well-framed question – an explanation on trial 5. Recognize a “controlled” experiment. One that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group Wed, 1/8 6. Compare and contrast Lamark’s Hypothesis of Acquired Characteristics and Darwin’s Hypothesis of Natural Selection. Lamark: life evolves as environments change - 1. Use and disuse idea: body parts used become extensively larger, those not used deteriorate - 2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics: organisms pass these modifications to offspring Darwin: process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits 7. Compare and contrast artificial selection and natural selection. Artificial selection: species are modified over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits Natural selection: species modified over many generations naturally through competition, environment, etc. 8. Define natural selection and adaptation. Adaptation: inherited characteristic of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments 9. Explain an example of evolution by natural selection. Soapberry bugs’ beaks adapt to their environment’s native food 10. Define and give examples of homology, homologous structures, vestigial structures, convergent evolution, and analogous structures. Homology: similarity resulting from common ancestry Homologous structures: represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor - i.e., human arm, cat arm, whale fin, bat wing Vestigal structures: remnants of features that served a function in the organism’s ancestors - i.e., skeletons of snakes retain vestiges of pelvis and leg bones of walking ancestors Convergent evolution: when distantly related organisms resemble each other; the independent evolution of similar features in different lineages Analogous structures: structures that resemble each other as a result of convergent evolution; have same structure but different functions 11. Interpret evolutionary trees. Fri, 1/10 1. Recognize sources of genetic information. a. Formation of new alleles (mutations) b. Altering gene number or position (chromosomal changes) c. Rapid reproduction (high mutation rate) d. Sexual reproduction (crossing over, independent assortment, fertilization) 2. State the assumptions for the Hardy-Weinberg equation. a. Large population b. No gene flow c. Completely random mating d. No natural selection e. No mutations 3. Apply the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine whether or not evolution is occurring in a populat2on. 2 P + 2pq + q = 1  genotypic alleles P + q = 1  phenotypes 4. Compare and contrast genetic drift, founder effect, and bottleneck effect. - Genetic drift: chance events cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next, especially in small populations; ALWAYS RANDOM - Founder effect: When a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, the smaller group may establish a new population whose gene pool differs from the source population • Accounts for relatively high frequency of certain inherited disorders among isolated human populations - Bottleneck effect: sudden change in environment drastically reduces size of population; frequencies of alleles are all altered 5. Explain why gene flow is important. Gene flow = the transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to movement of fertile individuals or their gametes • Can introduce genes to a population  increasing genetic variation • Can make distant populations genetically similar to one another, reducing the chance of speciation, by moving genes around 6. Graph the effect of directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection for a trait. 7. Defend the following statement: “Through natural selection, populations adapt to their environment, but the adaptations may not be ideal.” Mon, 1/13 1. State the definition of the biological species concept. Can they reproduce and produce viable, fertile offspring? Doesn’t apply to: • fossils • asexual organisms (e.g., prokaryotes) 2. Compare and contrast factors that lead to reproductive isolation. a. Preyzygotic- impede mating or prevent fertilization i. Habitual isolation- same area; different habitats (i.e., aquatic and terrestrial garter snakes) ii. Temporal isolation- different breeding times (i.e., yellow-legged frogs breed April – June, red-legged frogs breed Jan – March iii. Behavioral isolation- courtship rituals (i.e., Bower birds ineffective rituals between different species) iv. Mechanical isolation- morphological different prevent successful completion (i.e., snails) v. Gametic isolation- sperm cannot fertilize eggs of another species (i.e., aquatic animals, esp. sea urchins) b. Postzygotic- prevent a hybrid from developing into a viable, fertile adult i. Reduce
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