Synapomorphy – shared derived trait in 2 or more taxa that was present in their
common ancestor and missing further back
• Cladogram = type of evolutionary tree built on “cladistic” principles
Parsimony – method that implies as few evolutionary steps as possible
Coherence – trees built using different synapomorphies should agree
Theory vs. hypothesis
• Theory (def): a proposed explanation for a very general class of phenomena.
Hypothesis: a proposed explanation for a phenomenon or a set of observations.
H1: Giraffes with the