D103 - Lecture 2 - Biological Membranes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Grant Mac Gregor

D103 – Lecture 2 – Biological Membranes A. Mitochondria a. Endosymbiosis theory i. Smaller than eukaryotic cells b. Has similarities with bacteria c. Two sets of membranes B. Information from a light microscope a. Tells the appearance of a cellular structure b. Dynamics of a cellular structure c. You cannot derive a function based on how it looks B. Chemically Fixed Cells a. No dynamics anymore b. Immunohistochemistry B. Function of a Membrane a. Permeability barrier b. Selectively permeable c. Flexible d. Communication B. Fluid mosaic model a. Described by Singer and Nicolson (1972) b. Membrane is made of two leaflets B. Prokaryotes a. Do not have internal membranes i. No golgi, ER, nucleus B. Phospholipid a. Polar head i. Different head groups b. Glycerol i. Sphyinosine b. Nonpolar tail c. Amphiphatic d. Differ by i. Head group ii. Length of tail iii. Degree of saturation iv. Backbone 1. Glycerol 2. Sphingosine B. Hydrophobic core of lipid bilayer a. 3 nm B. Energetically Favorable a. Lateral Diffusion i. Same leaftlet b. Flip-flop i. Switch leaflets ii. Occurs by enzyme activity 1. Flippases 2. Rearranges the composition of the lipid bilayer a. Apoptotic signaling i. Phosphotidyserine ii. Bending of membrane 1. Cone vs cylindrical shape 2. Saturation of tails 3. Vesicle formation B. Micelle a. Phospholipid with one tail b
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