D103 - Lecture 5 - Cytoskeleton.docx

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Biological Sciences
Grant Mac Gregor

A. Clicker a. Experimentally determine which component of the cytoskeleton is responsible for cell migration? i. Disrupt each stucture separately ii. Each answer - control experiment b. Loss of profilin B. Mitochondria a. Power plant of the cell b. Maternal inheritance i. Pedigree problem! B. Size comparison! C. Cytoplasmic Inheritance a. Normal cell division i. Mutated nucleoids 1. Progeny contains different mixtures of healthy/mutated mitochondria 2. Phenotype also depends on the identity of the cell ii. Is it Possible to predict mitochondrial mutation pedigree b. Mito Mutations i. More pronounced in tissues with high energy requirement ii. Can occur in both the mtDNA and nDNA. b. Mitochondria produce 13 proteins, has 22 tRNA B. Cytoplasmic vs Maternal Inheritance? a. Cytoplasmic i. Somatic cells ii. Random segregation iii. Threshold b. Maternal i. germline B. Mitochondrial Diseases a. Heteroplasmy i. Mutant and wt forms of mtDNA in the same cell b. Threshold Effect i. Diseases may only be manifested if the % of mutant mtDNA reaches a level (different between tissues) 1. Same mtDNA mutation can make different phenotypes depending on location of cell B. Neutraphil a. Moving cell that chases after bacteria i. Possible due to the fluidity of membrane ii. Follows a chemical signal released by the bacteria B. Cytoskeleton a. Structure, stability b. Promotes movement within and of the cell B. Cytoskeletal Elements a. Microtubules i. MTOC = centrosome 1. Microtubule organizing center ii. Made of alpha and beta tubulin 1. Assembled into protofilaments a. 13 protofilaments makes 1 microtubule ii. Largest, 25nm iii. Intrinsically polar structure 1. Ends are different b. LOOK AT IMAGE - DETERMINE WHICH CYTOSKELETON IT IS c. Intermediate Filaments i. Middle Size, ii. Made of 1. Intermediate filament monomer a. Have bulky protein ends at the N and C terminals i. Polar structure ii. Dimer
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