D103 - Lecture 26 - Apoptosis.docx

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Biological Sciences
Grant Mac Gregor

A. Clickers a. Defect in apoptosis B. Characteristics of apoptosis a. No cell rupture i. No inflammation b. Blebbing c. Chromatin compaction and condensation d. Cell will fragment and get eaten by phagocytic cells B. DNA Fragmentation a. After induction of apoptosis b. Formation of the DNA ladder i. Cleavage of DNA between nucleosomes b. Labeling DNA free ends B. Biochemical markers for apoptosis a. Flippase i. Outside to inside b. Floppase i. Inside to outside b. Scramblase i. Mixing both layers b. Phosphotidylserine is the signal for apoptosis i. "eat-me" signal B. Chromatin Condensation C. Apoptosis vs Necrosis a. Apoptosis i. No swelling or rupturing b. Necrosis i. Cell swells and ruptures ii. Inflammatory response B. Purpose of Apoptosis a. Sculpting i. Limbs, tubes b. Adjusting Cell Numbers c. Unwanted structures d. Eliminate dangerous cells B. Cancer is due to a. Increased cell division b. Decreased apoptosis B. Caspases a. Family of proteolytic proteins b. Always present in the cell i. As procaspases 1. Activated by extrinsic signaling 2. Or activated by intrinsic signaling
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