D103 - Lecture 27 - Cancer.docx

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Biological Sciences
Grant Mac Gregor

A. Cancer a. Neoplasm i. Tumor b. Benign i. Cells clustered in a single mass ii. Enclosed in membrane or organ b. Malignant i. Capacity to move ii. Metastasis b. Cancer loves glucose i. Uses glycolysis, no oxidative phosphorylation ii. Warbug effect b. 90% of cancers are carcinomas (epithelia) i. More exposed to environmental factors B. Alcohol a. Asians i. Very active in converting ethanol to acetaldehyde ii. Higher tolerance - less ethanol in system iii. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1. Converts acetaldehyde to acetate B. Environmental causes of cancer a. Bacterial-mediated inflammation b. Aspirin a day B. Aging causes cancer a. A buildup of mutations i. Threshold for cancer to manifest B. Delayed onset of cancer C. Tumor Progression a. Involves multiple rounds of mutation and natural selection b. Removal of regulatory control mechanisms B. Genetic Instability a. Goldilock's zone i. Too much instability - cells die ii. Too little instability - can't evolve into cancer cell B. 6 Characteristics of cancer a. Glycolysis is preferred to oxidative phosphorylation i. Mitochondria, cytochrome C B. Ras : GTPase : MAPK : a. Timer i. Active while hydrolyzing GTP b. Missense at Glycine i. Exception of proline ii. Ineffective GTP hydrolysis iii. Lengthens signal B. Overactivity mutation a. Gain of function b. Dominant B. Underactivity mutation a. Loss of function b. Recessive c. Inhibit cancer B. Rb a. Inhibits the cell cycle b. Phosphorylated for removal c. Receive a mutation from one of the parents d. Why only in the eye? B. TGF-beta a. Inhibits cell division b. Stimulates termianl diferentiation B. PAI a. Protease inhibitor b. Prevents cancer cells from using proteases to spread throughout body B. HPV a. Papilloma viruses b. Wants to stop the cell from killing itself c. Makes E6 and E7 i. Early gene products ii. E7 binds up Rb 1. Allows E2F to continue production of cyclins ii. E6 binds to p53 1. Detects damage in the cell 2. Causes cell cycle arrest senescence apoptosis b. A. Neoplasm a. Tumors b. Masses of excessively growing cells B. Benign Tumor a. Cluster of a mass of cancer cells, enclosed in a membrane or organ B. Malignant Tumor a. Metastatic b. Able to travel B. Adenoma a.
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