D104 Lecture 3.docx

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University of California - Irvine
Biological Sciences
Ken Cho

D104 Lecture 3 Drosophila—an invertebrate model organism • flies and humans have a difference of 10,000 genes Life cycle of Drosophila: • Fertilization to gastrulation is only 3 hours (critical events generating the pattern occur and body axes—cleavage) • Gastrulation: cells rearrange • The whole process takes 9-10 days Syncytial blastoderm is unique to Drosophila development • every 15 minutes, nuclear division takes place is Drosophila • synctial blastoderm: all nuclei are exposed and not surrounded by membrane (exposed to all the cytoplasmic material—can diffuse straight into the nucleus) • cellular blastoderm: individual nuclei are surrounded my inner membrane (not exposed to cytoplasmic material—cannot diffuse into the nuclei. They need to go through the cell membrane) The embryonic stage at which proteins can freely diffuse through the insect embryo and enter nuclei: Syncytial blastoderm Gastrulation • fly embryo is like a football • a single layer surrounding the fly embryo • Mesoderm is located at the bottom of the football (muscular structures surrounded by epidermis/skin cells in adult flies) o The mesoderm needs to be pushed into the embryo (invaginations form and then surrounded by skin cells, which push out) • Gut cells are on the right and left sides (anterior and posterior sides)
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