D104 Lecture 6.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ken Cho

D104 Lecture 6 Mesoderm migration during gastrulation • marks the mesoderm and its migration during gastrulation • invaginates to move inside the cell • Ventral ectoderm becomes neuroectoderm DV specification occurs during oogenesis • nurse cells: make the mRNA and protein that are being pumped into the oocyte • follicle cells send out Toll signals that occurs in the ventral region • know about the two types of follicle cells Activation of Toll receptor on the ventral side • signals indicated in red (ligand)—called Spatzle o binds to pole receptor and activates signal cascade o concentrated the most in the ventral region o Graded nuclear localization of the morphogen “Dorsal” • Dorsal controls expressin of the gene “twist” in the nucleus • Twist is expressed in the mesoderm on the ventral side only o Dorsal has the affinity to go into the nucleus, binds to the DNA, regulates the transcription • Cactus binds to the Dorsal and maintains the dorsal expression in the cytoplasm and dorsal can’t migrate into the nucleus • Spatzle binds to Toll, activates cactus kinase, phosphorylates cactus, and causes cactus to get degraded, lets dorsal go into the nucleus and control expression of twist in the nucleus • mammalians use the same mechanism to control lymphocytes Dorsal provides positional information along the D/V axis • if dorsal product absent in the embryo, it can’t control ventral side • in a dorsal minus mutant, dorsol is absent in the ventral side and dorsal is not in the nucleus either • dorsal is found in the nucleus but it plays the most important
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