Lecture 13.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIO SCI M114
Professor
Alexander Mc Pherson
Semester
Spring

Description
Pg. 1 Lecture 13 Nucleic Acids 1. Two experiments  a.  Hershey Chase  : to determine what the genetic material is i. Grew Baceriophage in P32 (DNA) ii. And in S35 (Protein) iii. Concluded that DNA was injected into the E. Coli iv. Lysis produced new phage with radiolabeled DNA  b.  Avery  : i. 2 strain of bacteria: virulent & non virulent ii. Mixed heat­killed virulent + non virulent 1. Injected the mixture and found the mouse died 2. Tells us that there is a transformation occurring iii. Isolated DNA from virulent + non virulent 1. Transformation still occurred 2. Tells us that DNA is the hereditary material 2. Late 1940’s everyone is convinced that DNA is the hereditary material a. 1953 Watson & Crick >> DNA helix & replication Central Dogma: information flow 3. DNA > RNA > Protein  Nucleic Acids 4. Roles in Living Cells a.  DNA   serves as a reservoir of genetic information in linear form b. Regulates the expression of genetic expression (Transcription) c. Serves as a template for daughter cell replication (replication) 5. RNA – 3 major variants a. Ribosomal rRNA: which is the structural and enzymatic component of the  protein synthesis apparatus b. Messenger mRNA: serves to transfer genetic information to the protein  synthesis machinery from the DNA c. Transfer tRNA: provides direct connection of the DNA to the translation  of protein 6. Properties of DNA and RNA a.  DNA    Very stable i. Long lived, Difficult to hydrolyze, Very long, One confirmation  ii. Informational molecule, base paired, DNA template dependent for  synthesis iii. Double stranded b.  rRNA  : Moderately stable i. Naturally hydrolyzed ii. 23s, 16s, 5s 1. Swetchberg constant iii. Catalyze reactions, highly based paired to forms secondary  structure iv. Usually single stranded Pg. 2 Lecture 13 c.  mRNA  : not stable, short lived i. Single stranded, have secondary structure, readily subject to  hydrolyzed  1. Short lived because cell needs to keep in constant  homeostasis with the environment, changing metabolites  constantly by changing the mRNA present ii. mRNA has random structure part molten globular and part single  helical strand d.  tRNA  : smallest RNA i. 75­93 nucleotide (25kD) ii.
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