BME1.doc

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Department
Biomedical Engineering
Course
BME 1
Professor
Tibor Juhasz
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 1 Is UCI Biomedical Engineering the right department for you? Bernard Choi • BME does o Cardiovascular engineering o Tissue engineering o Nanotechnology o Laser eye surgery much more • Desired situation—well informed student • After 4 years, will most likely not be ____ engineer • Different BME pathways: o Industry  Wants depth and hands on exp  Consider double major/minoring, ID courses outside of BME department, find research positions/internship o Graduate school  Wants research exp  ID courses outside of BME department, find research position/internship o Medical school  Wants killer GPA, strong MCAT score, research exp, and clinical volunteer work  Find research (preferably co-author something), volunteer in clinical environment, no C’s, early exit strat (BME is a GPA killer) • Individualized career goals should be discussed w/facility advisors on a regular basis • UCI BME program mission statement: “...enable graduates to be leaders and innovators in bioengineering and biomedical professions” • Curriculum will give exposure to engineering principles in context of relevant biological and biomedical issues • 900 med/biotech companies in SO CAL • Other engineers label themselves as BME • BME majors have intellectual agility • Curriculum gives broad knowledge, our responsibly is to get depth so that we can compete w/the other ‘BME’ people • BME curriculum covers engineering, biology, and medicine • Checklist for success o identify passion o Develop general plan o identify and fill curriculum gaps so you can get more depth o Make sure 4 years as BME maximizes ability to achieve passion Lecture 2 Application of Nanomaterials for Biosensing Jered B. Haun • Nanosensors o optical o magnetic o solid matrix o vesicle • targeted nanomaterials target rare diseases • you can coat them in...stuff • semiconductor quantum dots o nanocrystal core o passivating layer  protect from oxidation  prevent leaching  wider-bandgap semiconductor: brighter o spectral tuning (colors) o multiplexing o photo-stable  makes them bright and good for tracking • useful tools for tumor targeting and cell tracking • Qdots are useful for o Semiconductor fluorescence (quantum confinement) o Spectral tuning based on size from UV to near-infrared o Narrow emission bands: multiplexing o Strong signal and exquisite stability o FRET-based biosensing o Tracking: blinking issue • plasmonic gold particles o Intense absorption/scattering (localized surface plasmon resonance) o Spectral tuning based on size, shape (nanorods), composition o No blinking or photobleaching o Coupling effects: interactions  separation  absorption (color)  scattering imaging o SERS: exquisite multiplexing and deep tissue imaging • Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles o includes iron-oxide and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance o can make all the poles in water rotate the same way o Nuclear magnetic resonance (enhanced relaxation) o MRI imaging o No biological background o Built-in amplification o µNMR and diagnostic magnetic resonance o No multiplexing nor signal activation • clinical translation o Miniature NMR detector o Chemically amplified MNP tagging • Clinical Diagnosis of Cancer o Suspicion: lump, pain, blood biomarker, family history o imaging: locate and assess abnormal growths o Biopsy: remove tissue o Pathology: analysis  Non-diagnostics and false negatives each typically 5-25%  Turn-around time: days to weeks  More information needed, more quickly o Genetic screening o Protein screening  Amplifications - translational control  Direct drug targets  Indicators of cell activation, growth, death • Clinical Summary o Detection of 10 protein markers from a single FNA  MNP amplification  µNMR detector o Highly heterogeneous expression profiles, MUC-1 most accurate o Importance of concurrent molecular information - 4 marker malignancy signature o Sources of heterogeneity:  Time: expression decay necessitates rapid processing  Sampling site: tumor heterogeneity indicates importance of sampling technique o Additional impact  Single cancer type: lung, pancreatic  Personalized medicine: tailoring and monitoring therapy Lecture 3 Application of Nanomaterials for Biosensing Jered B. Haun • Nanosensors o optical o magnetic o solid matrix o vesicle • targeted nanomaterials target rare diseases • you can coat them in...stuff • semiconductor quantum dots o nanocrystal core o passivating layer  protect from oxidation  prevent leaching  wider-bandgap semiconductor: brighter o spectral tuning (colors) o multiplexing o photo-stable  makes them bright and good for tracking • useful tools for tumor targeting and cell tracking • Qdots are useful for o Semiconductor fluorescence (quantum confinement) o Spectral tuning based on size from UV to near-infrared o Narrow emission bands: multiplexing o Strong signal and exquisite stability o FRET-based biosensing o Tracking: blinking issue • plasmonic gold particles o Intense absorption/scattering (localized surface plasmon resonance) o Spectral tuning based on size, shape (nanorods), composition o No blinking or photobleaching o Coupling effects: interactions  separation  absorption (color)  scattering imaging o SERS: exquisite multiplexing and deep tissue imaging • Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles o includes iron-oxide and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance o can make all the poles in water rotate the same way o Nuclear magnetic resonance (enhanced relaxation) o MRI imaging o No biological background o Built-in amplification o µNMR and diagnostic magnetic resonance o No multiplexing nor signal activation • clinical translation o Miniature NMR detector o Chemically amplified MNP tagging • Clinical Diagnosis of Cancer o Suspicion: lump, pain, blood biomarker, family history o imaging: locate and assess abnormal growths o Biopsy: remove tissue o Pathology: analysis  Non-diagnostics and false negatives each typically 5-25%  Turn-around time: days to weeks  More information needed, more quickly o Genetic screening o Protein screening  Amplifications - translational control  Direct drug targets  Indicators of cell activation, growth, death • Clinical Summary o Detection of 10 protein markers from a single FNA  MNP amplification  µNMR detector o Highly heterogeneous expression profiles, MUC-1 most accurate o Importance of concurrent molecular information - 4 marker malignancy signature o Sources of heterogeneity:  Time: expression decay necessitates rapid processing  Sampling site: tumor heterogeneity indicates importance of sampling technique o Additional impact  Single cancer type: lung, pancreatic  Personalized medicine: tailoring and monitoring therapy Lecture 4 High Precision Robotic Laser Surgery of the Human Eye Tibor Juhasz • first laser in 1960 • types of lasers o excimer  doesn't go all the way through, very precise surfice effect o femotsecond (the manufacture machine)  goes through, precise subsurface effect • secondary effects: shock-wave and cavitation bubble formation o 1st generation  large 2ndary effect  large collateral tissue damage  limited applications in ophthalmology o research goal - decrease 2nday effects and collateral damage for surgical application • Corneal Surgery with the Femtosecond Laser o Each pulse has surgical effec
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