Diagram for Carbon
Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons can have all four quantum numbers
be the same.
Fill in electrons in order of energy levels.
Each orbital holds 2 electrons.
Hund’s rule- Fill across degenerate energy levels before filling orbital.
Half filled and full filled orbitals are more stable. To get d orbitals to this stability
promote electrons from s orbitals
When valence d orbitals have electrons and you need to make an positive ion, remove
from valence s orbitals first.
Fs also have a bunch of exceptions, don’t worry about these. If I ask for an electron
configuration from the F block, just follow the rules
Question: Why can we be so fluid with our exchange of electrons from the s and d
orbitals? Electron configurations of ions Co
2 2 6 2 6 2 7
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d or ____________
Simply add or subtract electrons based on the charge of the ion
Example: Co to Co Take away two electrons
Where are we taking them from?
Electron configurations of ions
2 2 6 2 6 7 7
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d or [Ar] 3d
add or subtract electrons based on the charge of the ion
Example: Co to Co
Take away two electrons _________________ 1+