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Lecture

kinetic.molecular.theory:effusion.diffusion:root.mean.squared.speed.pdf

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1A
Professor
Amanda Brindley
Semester
Winter

Description
Kinetic Molecular Theory - kinetic energy - energy of motion - kinetic theory of gases - assume molecules are point masses (no volume, even though thereʼs mass) - constant random motion, collisions are completely elastic - energy can be transferred, but total energy remains the same - gas molecules are neither attracted nor repulsed - average kinetic energy is proportional to temperature - at a given temperature, 2 different gas molecules will have the same KE - same KE, different masses => velocity changes 2 - KE = (1/2)mu - increase mass => decrease velocity // heavier molecules are slower - pressure - created by collisions between molecules and the container - the faster the molecules hit the container => the more pressure - if molecules move faster => higher temperature - the more frequent molecules hit the container => the more pressure - increase temperature or increase the number of molecules Root Mean Squared Speed 2 - u - average molecular speed - molecular speed curves - particular amount of molecules at particular speeds - temperature - y axis: # of particles and x axis: molecular speed m/s - narrower distribution => slower speeds - raise temperature => wider curve => more speeds - total KE = 3/2 RT - KE of 1 atom = (1/2)mv 2 - KE of 1 mol = 6.02x10 ((1/2)(mu )) 2 - urms= sqrt(3RT / M) - increase M => urms gets smaller - as something gains mass, it loses speed ex. calculate rms of He and N molecules. Relate this to our atmospheric makeup He: urms = sqrt (3 * 8.314J/Kmol(298K)) / (4.003x10 kg/mol) ▯ = sqrt ( 1.86x10 J/kg) = 1.36x10 m/s Diffusion & Effus
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