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Lecture 13

CHEM H90 Lecture 13: The Idiom and Practice of Science (05/01/17)

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University of California - Irvine

LECTURE 13 Monday, May 1, 2017 Chemical Reactions • Combustion of methane o CH (g4 + O (g2  CO (g) 2 H O (g2 • Balancing the equation o CH (g) + 2O (g)  CO (g) + 2H O (g) 4 2 2 2 • CH 4g) + 2 O 2g)  CO (g2 + 2 H O 2g) o Like lego blocks – same blocks must appear on the left and right sides o No change • In a chemical reaction, the atoms in the compounds are rearranged to form new compounds: the number and type of atoms is conserved o The number of electrons is conserved as well Balancing a chemical equation 1. Determine what reaction is occurring. Write down the formulas and physical states for reactants and products. 2. Write the unbalanced equation. 3. Balance the equation, starting with the most complicated molecule EXAMPLE • Solid ammonium dichromate can be ignited to form nitrogen gas, water vapor, and solid chromium (III) oxide. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction. 1. Determine what reaction is occurring. Write down the formulas and physical states for reactants and products. a. Reactants: (NH )4 2 O2 7) b. Products: N (2), H O2(g), Cr 2 3s) 2. Write the unbalanced equation a. (NH )4 2 O2 7)  N (g2 + X H O 2g) + Cr O2 3) b. What is the balance of X?  4 The Idiom and Practice of Science Chemical Reactions • Branches of chemistry o Analytic o Atmospheric o Biochemistry o Inorganic o Education o Organic o Materials o Physical o Theory ▪ The professor works in this subfield! • Somewhat traditional o Most chemists nowadays will work in more than one of these areas simultaneously • Each one is its own separate subfield of chemistry The Central Science • Physics < Chemistry < Biology < Math o Ivory tower  Social benefits o Quantitative  Less quantitative o Nerdier  Cooler Basic divisions within chemistry • Synthetic o Making things o Takes place in real labs where people mix things up and make new chemicals • Physical o Understanding things A little piece we missed last lecture • Corrections to Thomas-Fermi Densities at Turning Points and Beyond o Theory, full of equations and things o This gives you some idea of some of the breadth of what we consider as chemistry because this involves mathematical physics but is very relevant to chemistry It takes a village • Our chemistry department currently has 50 professors • This will give you some sense of the variety of things Types of work experiences • Job o Earn money, 8 hours a day and 5 days a week – just for the money • Career o Wants a job but also wants to progress in what they do, get better and get paid better, work their way up the chain • Vocation o You really care about it and like doing it o Most scientists definitely must have a vocation or they wouldn’t be professors o Dream job is vocation • Obsession o HAHA • Paranoia • Madness Fundamental scientific research • Most is done in universities • National Labs o Mostly run by the Department of Energy (DoE) • Industry o Synthetic chemists working on making new products with lots of uses Academic career at university • B Sc (4 years) o Maybe 22 years old or so • PhD (5-6 years) o Maybe 28 years old • Postdoc (3-6 years) o Maybe 32 years old o Temporary academic position where you work with (a) professor(s) • Assistant Professor (6 years) o Maybe 40 years old o A faculty position • Tenure o You get seriously evaluated • Associate Professor (3-6 if good) o Maybe 45 years old • (Full) Professor • Maybe Distinguished Professor (50) • Maybe Chaired Professor (55) Types of Institutions • Elite private schools o Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Stanford, Caltech •
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