Cognitive Science 140 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM
Lecture 1 – Tuesday, April 3, 2011
Both nativism and empiricism is if you were ment to learn it you just need
They used self report to learn psychology.
o Your not allowed to go into the library (inside the mind) but
as people come in and out your allowed to survey them
finding out what they did and needed from the library, the
amount of time spent in the library, and etc.
o Send someone in the library and give them a goal and have
them report back to you.
Levels of Analysis goes both ways I-A-C or C-A-I
o How do you actually implement this to achieve this goal
o What process to get to there
o Why did it do that
Cognitive science is regarded as a multi-disciplinary field of research
A. it involves research
Functionalism as a theory of mind takes the position that..
A. evolution serves to provide people with skills and capabilities they need to
survive in a competitive and changing world
B. developing taxonomy of stimulus-response contingencies provides an
objective basis for a science C. mental states are identifited by the functions they perform
mapping information available as input to behavior produced as
Cognitive science research is relevant to a compny like amazon which sells
books and other products online ,because
AI and layout
Absent Thursday Cognitive Psychology Week 2 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM
Homework assignment due at the end of week 3
-- Starts at Lecture 2 #36
A Kitchen Schema
Default items you expect to see (Stove…)
Items you expect to see but are not default (toasters…)
Items you don’t expect to see in the kitchen (toilet…)
Size expected, medium to large
Schemata for events (Scripts)
Stereotypical nature of some events, but allow variation
o Example: restaurant
Fixed series of events
Items that go together that people don‟t normally think of together,
but an individual thinks of together (things to take from a burning
“goal-derived” categories: Things to perform on a camping trip.
Hierarchical Conceptual Structures
Basic Level of Categorization
Most common level that comes to ones mind
Examples of Levels
Superordinate Level: furniture
Basic Level: Chair
Subordinate Level: Windsor
Lecture 3 – Perception, Action, Cognition
Perception and cognition information interact Because you see something there, your perception may vary from
What your thinking about, hence what you‟ll see (perception)
Change-Blindness: Neisser (1979)
Playing around with basketball, then lady with umbrella walks
through. Barely anyone notices the woman walking through with
Change-Blindness: Simons and Chabris (1999)
Replicated Neisser study with gorilla passing
When something changes in a scene and you fail to notice Cognitive Psychology 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM
Came in 15 minutes late
Lecture 3 Slide 45 End at slide 65
Face recognition Cognitive Science 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM
Came in 10 minutes late
Started on new lecture “Decision Making”
The classic decision making work out way to shuffle all of them all across
Rational vs heuristic
Thursday (on time! )
Midterm on the 8 th
Multiple choice and short answer
Review on Tuesday
If you do the thing of swapping you have a 2/3 chance of winning. You first
had a 1/3 chance of winning..
Last slide on midterm is slide 57 on lecture 4 Cognitive Science 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM
Work on Exercise 2- due week 8
Study for midterm next week!
Introduction and history
Cognitive science deals with attempts to understand how humans and
animals thinks! Cognitive Science deals with perception, action, learning,
memory, decision-making and problem solving.
Disciplines in cognitive science
o Psychology, Computer Science, Machine Learning, Statistics,
Cognitive Neuroscience, Linguistics, Philosophy, Education
o We mostly focus on insights from Cognitive Psychology
Empiricism, nativism, behaviorism, functionalism
o Empiricism: Knowing from experiences
o Nativism: We come into the world with innate knowledge.
Knowledge born with
Ebbinghaus conducted the first behavioral psychology experiments
focusing on memory by memorizing non-sense syllables.
Introspection: many mental processes are not available to
o Behaviorism: a form of associationism (empiricism), viewing
the structure of the mind as having been formed through
interaction with the environment.
o Functionalism: Use as empirical data observable “facts”
Ex. Accuracy of recall, time to make a decision,
confidence in a decision
Marr’s three levels
o Computational: What is the goal? How?
o Algorthmic: What is the process? What?
o Implementation: How did they do the process? Why?
Concepts and categories
Definitional, prototype and exemplar theories o Definitional: (also known as set-theoretic) approach
assumes stimuli are grouped using a set of necessary and
A list of conditions will be set to be in the category
Ex. What makes each a game? Baseball, tennis,
o Prototype: “ideal” instance of a category. Share “family
resemblances” than the exact definition.
Ex. Robin for bird instead of emu or penguin. Or Fruit,
orange apple instead of olives, coconut.
A Experiment would be dot patterns with low and high
and random patterns. With a learning phase, showing
them the low and high patterns, then testing phase with
the random patterns included to see if they can
determine the category.
The “proto” were often chosen as old
o Exemplar: opposite as prototype view, every instance of a
category is remember
o Comparing Prototype and Exemplar views: average similarity
to exemplars and similarity to the prototype are roughly
o Schemas: Knowledge of knowing something belongs.
Allowing a little freedom
Example: Kitchen has “slots” filled by variables such as
fridge, sink, oven
o Scripts: The knowledge of knowing events (flexibility and