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University of California - Irvine
Cognitive Sciences
Jim K Lee

Cognitive Science 140 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM Lecture 1 – Tuesday, April 3, 2011 Both nativism and empiricism is if you were ment to learn it you just need the experience Slide 11  They used self report to learn psychology. Slide 16  Observation (field) o Your not allowed to go into the library (inside the mind) but as people come in and out your allowed to survey them finding out what they did and needed from the library, the amount of time spent in the library, and etc.  Experimental o Send someone in the library and give them a goal and have them report back to you. Slide 18 Levels of Analysis goes both ways I-A-C or C-A-I  Implementation o How do you actually implement this to achieve this goal  Algorithmic o What process to get to there  Computational o Why did it do that Practice Questions Cognitive science is regarded as a multi-disciplinary field of research because A. it involves research Functionalism as a theory of mind takes the position that.. A. evolution serves to provide people with skills and capabilities they need to survive in a competitive and changing world B. developing taxonomy of stimulus-response contingencies provides an objective basis for a science C. mental states are identifited by the functions they perform mapping information available as input to behavior produced as output Cognitive science research is relevant to a compny like amazon which sells books and other products online ,because AI and layout ----------------------------- Absent Thursday Cognitive Psychology Week 2 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM Homework assignment due at the end of week 3 -- Starts at Lecture 2 #36 A Kitchen Schema  Default items you expect to see (Stove…)  Items you expect to see but are not default (toasters…)  Items you don’t expect to see in the kitchen (toilet…)  Size expected, medium to large Schemata for events (Scripts)  Stereotypical nature of some events, but allow variation o Example: restaurant  Fixed series of events  Flexibility  Expectations Ad-hoc Categories  Items that go together that people don‟t normally think of together, but an individual thinks of together (things to take from a burning house)  “goal-derived” categories: Things to perform on a camping trip. Hierarchical Conceptual Structures  Basic Level of Categorization  Most common level that comes to ones mind  Common attributes  Motor movements  Shape similarity  Language development Examples of Levels  Superordinate Level: furniture  Basic Level: Chair  Subordinate Level: Windsor Practice Questions -----------------------------Thursday 4/12 Lecture 3 – Perception, Action, Cognition  Perception and cognition information interact  Because you see something there, your perception may vary from others‟ Key Terms:  Perception: Stimulation  Apperception: Knowledge What your thinking about, hence what you‟ll see (perception) Change-Blindness: Neisser (1979)  Playing around with basketball, then lady with umbrella walks through. Barely anyone notices the woman walking through with umbrella Change-Blindness: Simons and Chabris (1999)  Replicated Neisser study with gorilla passing Change Detection:  When something changes in a scene and you fail to notice Cognitive Psychology 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM Came in 15 minutes late Lecture 3 Slide 45 End at slide 65 -----Thursday Slide 66 Face recognition Cognitive Science 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM Came in 10 minutes late Started on new lecture “Decision Making” Slide 3 The classic decision making work out way to shuffle all of them all across Induction: Generalize Rational vs heuristic Thursday (on time! ) Midterm on the 8 th Multiple choice and short answer Review on Tuesday If you do the thing of swapping you have a 2/3 chance of winning. You first had a 1/3 chance of winning.. Last slide on midterm is slide 57 on lecture 4 Cognitive Science 4/3/2012 8:48:00 AM Work on Exercise 2- due week 8 Study for midterm next week! Midterm Review! Examinable Material Introduction and history Cognitive science deals with attempts to understand how humans and animals thinks! Cognitive Science deals with perception, action, learning, memory, decision-making and problem solving.  Disciplines in cognitive science o Psychology, Computer Science, Machine Learning, Statistics, Cognitive Neuroscience, Linguistics, Philosophy, Education o We mostly focus on insights from Cognitive Psychology  Empiricism, nativism, behaviorism, functionalism o Empiricism: Knowing from experiences o Nativism: We come into the world with innate knowledge. Knowledge born with  Ebbinghaus conducted the first behavioral psychology experiments focusing on memory by memorizing non-sense syllables.  Introspection: many mental processes are not available to conscious experience o Behaviorism: a form of associationism (empiricism), viewing the structure of the mind as having been formed through interaction with the environment. o Functionalism: Use as empirical data observable “facts”  Ex. Accuracy of recall, time to make a decision, confidence in a decision  Marr’s three levels o Computational: What is the goal? How? o Algorthmic: What is the process? What? o Implementation: How did they do the process? Why? Concepts and categories  Definitional, prototype and exemplar theories o Definitional: (also known as set-theoretic) approach assumes stimuli are grouped using a set of necessary and sufficient properties  A list of conditions will be set to be in the category  Ex. What makes each a game? Baseball, tennis, chess etc. o Prototype: “ideal” instance of a category. Share “family resemblances” than the exact definition.  Ex. Robin for bird instead of emu or penguin. Or Fruit, orange apple instead of olives, coconut.  A Experiment would be dot patterns with low and high and random patterns. With a learning phase, showing them the low and high patterns, then testing phase with the random patterns included to see if they can determine the category.  The “proto” were often chosen as old o Exemplar: opposite as prototype view, every instance of a category is remember o Comparing Prototype and Exemplar views: average similarity to exemplars and similarity to the prototype are roughly equivalent.  Schemas, scripts o Schemas: Knowledge of knowing something belongs. Allowing a little freedom  Example: Kitchen has “slots” filled by variables such as fridge, sink, oven o Scripts: The knowledge of knowing events (flexibility and sometimes exceptions)
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