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Psych156A/ Ling150 Spring 2012 Review Questions: Introduction to Language Acquisition (1)Terms/concepts to know: phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax, pragmatics, grammar, phonemes, morphemes, free morpheme, bound morpheme, derivational morpheme, inflectional morpheme, compounding, linguistic infinity, prescriptive grammar, descriptive grammar, Marr’s hierarchy, computational level, algorithmic level, implementational level, CHILDES database, computational modeling, hypothesis space, data intake, update procedure Phonology: Sounds and sound system of language Gablinz vs. gob lins Morphology: System for combining units of meaning together (goblin+[plural]=goblins) Lexicon: Words and associated knowledge (word forms, word meanings, etc.) goblins=(not koblins) Syntax: System for combining words into sentences. Goblins like children Pragmatics: Knowledge of language use. Don’t goblins like children?=surprise if answer is ‘no’ (expectations is ‘yes’) Grammar: Patterns of “rules” of language Phonemes: Basic perceptual units of which speech is composed Units that are used to build morphemes Languages have a finite inventory of these units. They are not units of meaning. They are contrastive: changing a phoneme can change meaning (pig vs big). Morphemes: Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units of language Morphemes combine to form the words of a language. Ex: He’s a regifter! (re + gift +er) Combination is rule-governed: “Regifter” is okay but not *Reergift, *Erregift, *Ergiftre, *Gifterre, *giftreer. Free morpheme: Free morphemes may stand alone. Mail, movie, sesation, mother Bound morpheme: Bound (usually grammatical) morphemes cannot stand alone: ing, -s, -ed Derivational morpheme: DERIVATIONAL: re + gift, sensation + al Example: sensation sensational sensationalize sensationalization sensationalizational sensationalizationalize Inflectional morpheme: Sing  Singing, sings Compounding: Example: mother grandmother great-grandmother great-great-grandmother great-great-great-grandmother Linguistic infinity: Prescriptive grammar: Descriptive grammar: Marr’s hierarchy: Computational level: Algorithmic level: Implementational level: CHILDES database: Computational modeling: Hypothesis space: Data intake: Update procedure: a. Phronology – sounds and sound systems (gablinz goblins) b. Morphology – system for combining units of meaning together (goblin + goblins) c. Lexicon – words and associated knowledge (word forms, word meanings) (goblins not koblins) d. Syntax – system for combining words into sentences e. Pragmatics – knowledge of language use f. Grammar – patterns or rules of language g. Phonemes – basic units of which speech is composed, used to build morphemes h. Morphemes – smallest meaningful unit of language i. Free morpheme – may stand alone EX: mail, movie, sensation, mother j. Bound morpheme – cannot stand alone EX: ing, -s, -ed k. Derivational morpheme – re + gift, sensation + al l. Inflectional morpheme – sing = singing, sings m. Compounding – e + mail, goblin + king, fantasy + movie + watcher n. Linguistic infinity – our minds store words and meanings and the patterns into which they can be placed (grammar) o. Prescriptive grammar – what you have to be taught in school, what is prescribed by some higher “authority”, you don’t learn this just by listening to native speakers talk p. Descriptive grammar – what you pick up from being a native speaker of language, how people actually speak in their day – to – day interactions, you don’t have to e explicitly taught q. Marr’s hierarchy – information processing basis of perception to be made rigorous, it becomes possible by separating explanations into different levels, to make explicit statements about what is being computed and why r. Computational level – what is the goal of computation? EX: arithmetic, addition s. Algorithmic level – how can this computational theory be implemented?, what is the representation for the input and output, and what is the algorithm for the transformation? EX: input: Arabic numerals, output: Arabic numerals, method of transformation: rules of addition t. Implementational level – how can the representation and algorithm be realized physically? EX: a series of electrical and mechanical components inside the cash register u. CHILDES database – wealth of child-directed speech transcripts and videos from a number of different languages, helps us figure out what children’s input looks like v. Computational modeling – linguistic studies can tell us what needs to be learned about language, experimental studies can tell us about when children seem to know different kinds of language knowledge, learn the appropriate what by the appropriate when w. Hypothesis space – hypotheses child is considering at any given point x. Data intake – how the child represents the data and which data the child uses y. Update procedure – how the child changes belief based on those data (2)What does it mean to say that children don’t get explicit instruction in much of the knowledge they eventually come to have about language? What kind of attention to explicit corrections their parents make about the grammatical form of the utterances they produce? Language is a complex system of knowledge that all children learn by listening to native speakers in their surrounding environment. Kids are extracting patterns and making generalizations from the surrounding data without explicit instructions. Parents can make corrections for their children but they can repeat the same mistakes. What is meant when it is said that children don’t get explicit instruction in much of the knowledge they eventually come to have about language is that most children learn much of their linguistic knowledge by age three. What children are doing is extracting patterns and making generalizations from the surrounding data mostly without explicit instruction. Children get input from what they hear on a daily basis and they must translate what they hear into a learning analogy. Children infer rules from examples of language. It is unlikely that children learn by being explicitly taught because once we go beyond the most superficial things, most of our knowledge is subconscious. Children often repeat the same language mistakes over and over after their parents correct them as evident in the example of the young girl asking telling her father that she “want other one spoon, Daddy”. After her father corrects her several times, she continues to make the same mistakes. (3)What is “noise” for language acquisition? Give an example of “noise” a child might encounter in language input. “Noise” is not really a set (group of 3 with matching categories), misleading ..but it is presented to a child as if it were. An example would be if the word was wanna or gonna and not could be replaced with the proper respective form. “Noise” for language acquisition is a misleading example in the input that children take in when inferring rules of language. One example of “noise” a child might encounter would be hearing contracted forms of words such as ‘wanna” and “gonna” that cannot always be replaced with their respective full forms. (4)How can you demonstrate that we can create an infinite number of sentences? Why does this mean that we need rules for generating sentences? A demonstration would be: Hoggle has two jewels. Hoggle has three jewels, ..Hoggle has forthy-three million jewels. (and so on to infinity) In order to speak and understand novel sentences we have to store words of our language and about the patterns of sentences possible. These patterns are refers to as rules of grammar. Linguistic productivity means we need rules. Soundsmorphemeswordssentences We can create an infinite number of sentences through the idea of linguistic infinity. An example of this is the sentence Hoggle has two jewels. This sentence can be changed an infinite number of ways simply by changing the number of jewels to “three”, “four” etc until infinity is reached. This means that we need rules of generating sentences due to the idea of linguistic productivity. Most sentences we have never seen or used before, but we still understand them, therefore we need rules. Speakers cannot simply memorize all the possible sentences of language. (5)Why do prescriptive grammar rules have to be taught in school in order for speakers to use them? (That is, why aren’t they learned just by listening to native speakers speak?) What’s an example of a prescriptive rule of English grammar? Prescriptive: what you have to be taught in school, what is prescribed by some higher “authority”. You don’t learn this just by listening to native speakers talk. This is because native speakers have their own way of talking. Prescriptive is the proper way to speak, native speakers use slang. “Don’t end a sentence with a preposition.” and “ ‘Ain’t’ is not a word.” Pr
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