Review Qs 5 -Gram Cat.docx

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Cognitive Sciences

Psych156A/ Ling150 Spring 2012 Review Questions: Grammatical Categorization (1) Terms/concepts to know: Grammatical category: Identify classes of words that behave similarly (are used in similar syntactic environments). If you know the grammatical category of the word, then you will know how this word is used in the language. Allow you to recognize other words that belong to the same category since they will be used the same way. Frequent frame: X___Y, where X and Y are words that frame another word and appear frequently in the child’s linguistic environment. The king is….. (2) One way to think about a word’s grammatical category (like noun or verb) is that it is really just a description of the way that word can be used in the language. Given the following contexts, say whether you think the novel word in each example (indicated by CAPITALS) is a noun (like “goblin”), a verb (like “sing”), an adjective (like “hot”), or an adverb (like “dreamily”). Be sure to briefly explain why you think so. (You might find it helpful to substitute words you know in place of the novel words, and see which ones fit best.) (a) That’s a veryBOFT bog. Adjective; because it is describing something. (b) Is Sir Didymus REKK ing the Bog of Eternal Stench? Verb; because the way it is used is to show an action that Sir Didymus is doing. (c) Ludo shouldn’t have STROOP ed his paw in the bog. Verb; (d) They had to beware the BREER ’s tricks. Noun; (e) Hoggle couldn’t believe how FREEMILYhe was able to do it. Adverb; (3) What is the Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis? What is one problem with it? Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis is when a child derives categories from semantic information, by observing what kind of entity in the world it refers too. Problem: Mapping rules are not perfect! Example: not all action-like words are verbs. - “Bouncy” “A kick”, action-like meaning but they are not verbs. Example: not all property-like words are adjectives - “Shining” “glitter”, seem to be referring to properties but these aren’t adjectives. The Semantic Bootstrapping Hypothesis when a child derives categories from semantic information, by observing what kind of entity in the world it refers to. The problem is that mapping rules are not perfect a. EX: “bouncy” “a kick” – action like meaning but they are not verbs (4) Here an example utterance from the imaginary Guin language. “felgo bofty mu az berg mu merk berg felgo zu mu var berg az porto mu freggo berg felgo seech mu set berg draz pino trem felgo trem mu peri berg lootem bleeter.” (a) What is the most frequent frame in this utterance? Mu ____berg 6 (b) Which words would this frame cluster together? (c) What is the second most frequent frame in this utterance? (d) What words would this second most frequent frame cluster together? a. The most frequent frame in the utterance is mu_berg – 6 b. This frame clustered the words az, merk, var, set, freggo, and peri c. The second most frequent is felgo_mu – 4 times d. The second frame clustered the words bofty, zu, seech, and trem (5) By using the frequent frames learning strategy on a large set of Guin data, suppose you were able to identify 120 words that seem to behave like nouns. When Guin speakers are asked about them, you find out that 65 of the 120 words you identified did belong to the same category (no
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