DANCE 3 Lecture 6: 4/20/17 Lecture Notes

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Deborah Messina- Kleinman

4/20: Dance 3 Lecture Notes Make sure to read and understand everything on nutrition because those will be heavy on both of the tests (know all of the micro and macronutrients mentioned) Which is an example of an inorganic micronutrient? CALCIUM Which has 4 Calories (kcal) per gram? Proteins and carbohydrates have 4 kcal per gram Lipids have 9 kcal per gram Macronutrients Proteins • The basis of body structure • Proteins are essential for muscle, bone, blood, etc. • Amino acids: the building blocks of proteins o There are 20 common amino acids o 9 amino acids are essential ▪ these are received through dietary choices. Must make sure youre getting sufficient quantities of these ▪ Where are they? Animal sources such as eggs, milk, beef, pork, poultry, milk and quinoa (grain that qualifies as a complete protein) o 11 are non-essential—meaning that the body can produce them on its own in sufficient quantities. Our body can make these on its own. • Protein intake: most Americans consume enough or even too much protein • Recommended daily intake: 0.8 grams per kg of body weight per day o 10-35% of total daily calorie intake • Converting pounds to kilograms: pounds divide by 2.2 = kilograms Vegetarian varieties • Vegan: doesn’t consume or use any products derived from animals • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian: Lacto= milk and ovo=eggs. They aren’t eaten meat but they are consuming milk products and eggs. (healthy type of vegetarian) • Semi-vegetarian o Pesco-vegetarian o Pollo-vegetarian • A food plan for strict vegetarians should include foods rich in vitamin b-12, vitamin, D, calcium, iron, and zinc Most plant proteins are incomplete proteins • Legumes (lentils, peas, beans, peanuts) • Tree nuts and seeds (walnuts and almonds) • Whole grains (wheat, oats, quinoa, rice, barley) • By combining foods from at least two of the above groups throughout the day, one can consume sufficient quantities of all 9 essential amino acids. • Exception: quinoa is a grain that is considered a complete protein • The whole goal is to get those 9 essential amino acids each day. Macronutrients Carbohydrates • 4 kcal per gram • organic • 45-65% of total daily calories • Carbohydrates supply energy for all cells o Simple carbohydrates ▪ Monosaccharides: Glucose, fructose, galactose (when you combine two, you get the disaccharides and the sweetest one is fructose) ▪ Disaccharides: lactose, maltose, sucrose (table sugar) ▪ Blood sugar is called glucose. Needs some of this to function but too much is not good either. o Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) ▪ Glycogen (animal storage)
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