Bio E179 Lecture 7 Notes .doc

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Developmental and Cell Biology
Rahul Warrior

Lecture 7 Marshes Swamps Bogs Fens and Vernal Pools1 Marshes Swamps Bogs Fens2 Vernal Pools3 Video Notes What Makes a Quality LakeSwamps and marshes are open systems whose water sources are rivers or streamsBogs and fens are closed systems Bogs receive water from rainfall while fens are sustained by groundwater seeping upwardThe source of water affects the hydraulic residence time of water within these habitatsOpen systems marshes and swamps have a shorter hydraulic residence time than bogs the longest or fensMarshesDominated by emergent aquatic herbaceous plants such as cattails bulrushes and sedges and have submerged or floating macrophytes such as pondweeds and water lilies a floating leaf plantA major feature distinguishing marshes from swamps is the absence of trees and shrubsoMarshes accumulate peat organic material which builds up on the bottom and have an external source of wateroverflow from rivers and streamsHydraulic residence time4 daysOpen system riverProductivity to biomass ratio PB12 greater than other types organic material is intermediatepH 5170 fairly neutralSwampsContain trees and shrubs woody emergent plants but also a variety of macrophytes in open areas usually limitedThey accumulate little peat because the trees are not deciduous and there are not large areas of herbaceous vegetation to contribute organic detritus as is the case in marshesAn external source of water such as a riverHydraulic residence time04 daysOpen system riverProductivity to biomass ratio PB007 shorter than other types organic matter is smallestpH 37 variableBogsAccumulate peat and are dominated by acidophilic mosses notably Sphagnum moss an acidtolerantmoss and sedgesBecause of the acidity of their water bogs have few or no trees or aquatic macrophytes oSince they are sustained by rainfall bogs are dependent on replenishment by rainwaterIn Canada they are called muskegs and in Europe they are called moors or miresHydraulic residence time70 daysClosed systemProductivity to biomass ratio PB01 greater than swamps organic matter is greatest lots pH 3647 consistently acidicFensCharacteristics of both bogs and marshesDistinguished by a mineral rich groundwater source and have a more alkaline higher pH than bogsBecause they have an external source of water from the water table their hydraulic residence time is short 5 days when compared with the residence time of bogs 70 days that are dependent upon occasional rainfallFens are ground water depressional wetlandsHydraulic residence time5 daysClosed systemProductivity to biomass ratio PBunknown
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