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Lecture 12

EDUC 107 Lecture 12: Cognitive Development and Piaget (05/15/17)

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EDUC 107

LECTURE 12 Monday, May 15, 2017 Cognitive Development and Piaget Jean Piaget (1896 –1980) • The “father of cognitive development” • Big ideas: o Cognition develops in four stages via three processes o People themselves as active participants of this development ▪ People have a lot of agency Before Piaget, Cognition was thought of as… • Biology dependent o Phrenology – skull shape and placement of bumps on the head can reveal personality traits ▪ Franz Gall o Evolutionary root of intelligence ▪ Sir Francis Galton • Unconsciousness, subconsciousness, and consciousness o Psychoanalytic ▪ Freud • Structuralism o Consciousness could be broken down into definable components ▪ Wilhelm Wundt ▪ Titchener • Behaviorism o Poopular in the 1880s ▪ Pavlov ▪ Skinner • Functionalism o Consciousness develops to serve certain functions ▪ William James o Was there, but hard to validate Piaget as a Breakthrough PREVIOUSLY • Intelligence as o Pre-determined o Inflexible • Cognition as o Inaccessible o Made up of additive parts • People as o Passive agents of thought PIAGET • Intelligence as o Developing, evolving o Flexible, so hard to get from standardized test • Cognition as o Constructed o Structural • People as o Active constructors of thought, problem solvers PIAGET’S STAGES • Sensorimotor • Pre-operational • Concrete operational • Formal operational Sensorimotor (infancy) • Characterized by actions involving objects in the external world o (e.g.) touching everything, dropping repeatedly • Hallmark: o Object permanence ▪ Overcoming “out of sight, out of mind” starting at around 10 months • It doesn’t just disappear; it still exists ▪ You will not pass the sensorimotor stage if you do not obtain object permanence o A-not-B error ▪ You have A and B • You put the toy repeatedly in A so that the infant observes A multiple times • All of a sudden, with the awareness of the infant, you move the toy to B ▪ The infants with object permanence will follow B, whereas those who do not have object permanence will look for the toy at A Pre-operational (age 2 – 6, 7) • Language development • Better memory o (e.g.) deferred imitation o A lot of learning, imitation, and modeling relies on having a memory • But still: o Lack the concept of conservation ▪ (e.g.) Wide v. thin glass, spread out coins, cookies in half • It looks bigger, it’s taller o Egocentric
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