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Lecture 15

EURO ST 10 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Protestant Union, Protestantism, Cardinal Richelieu

European Studies
Course Code
John Smith

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Professor Smith
Europe Studies 10
Course Code: 24000
4 units
2018 Fall Quarter
Course Notes
Origins of the Thirty Years War
Political and social and religious
Religious differences played into secular political interests; protestant princes
could gain power and independence from the church (the “secularization” of
property and lands) and the Habsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire
The Netherlands fighting for independence
Other nations (spain, denmark, sweden, france) also jostling for power
Plus, even if against his intentions, Luther’s ideas did inspire social changes and
challenges to temporal authority
All played out on “German” soil
Phases of the war
The 30 years war can be divided into 5 major phases:
1618-21 bohemian revolt
1621-24 palatinate phase (region in southwest germany)
1625-29 danish intervention
1630-35 swedish intervention
1636-48 french intervention
The immediate cause
Protestant princes in Bohemia lose privileges they had been granted by emperor
Rudolph the second, when a new emperor (ferdinand the second) comes in
The princes rebel, naming Frederick the second of the Palatinate (near heidelberg)
their king
When the emperor sends representatives to challenge the princes, they throw the
two representatives from the imperial court of the windows in Prague (they do
The defenestration” in Prague, May 23rd, 1618
Battles in Bohemia and Palatinate, back and forth between Protestant Union” and
Catholic league
Protestants (Frederick) defeated 1620, dubbed the Winter King because he
didn’t last long
Catholics defeated 1622
Protestants defeated (again) two years later
Danes intervene for Protestants to protect their lands in northern Germany, but
eventually defeated by Emperor Ferdinand the second and his brilliant general,
1629 lands in Germany confiscated by Protestants returned to Catholics
This “edict of restitution is an attempt of the HRE to re-establish control after the
Reformation, to roll back the clock
However, even Catholic princes are concerned that the Emperor is getting too
much power
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