Week 2 IDS.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 40A
Professor
Emily Rosenberg

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Description
Week 2 IDS So-called “New Immigration” • What: Mostly from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe; Immigrated to East Coast such as Ellis Island in New York; 1880-1920s; judged by how they look • Why: Considered non-white and inferior; Racism in progressive era; Source of cheap labor; Drive the transportation growth; questioned if people could be loyal to American and be Christian or Jew Muckrakers • What: American journalists, novelists, and critics who tried to uncover the abuses of business and political corruption, popular muckraker – Upton Sinclair; exposed the horrors of meat-packaging industry • Why: they were the voices for those who wanted change and reform; uncovered the corrupt government; exposed the problems in our large corporations; led to social reforms of government involvement in companies Progressive movement • What: “The Gilded Age”; period of social activism and political reform in the US from 1890s to 1920s; purification of the government; individual don’t care about the larger social good; economic inequality; tried to eliminate corruption by exposing political machines; women’s suffrage promoted; main concerns were a) greater government regulation of new corporate industrial order b) elimination of corruption • Why: led to many government reforms; Progressive Party started by Teddy Roosevelt; greater regulation of corporate companies; health and safety was regulated; working conditions were regulated; Federal Reserve Act of 1913 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 • What: signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, limited to only food moving in interstate commerce; drugs had to list any of the ten ingredients that were deemed dangerous on the product label if they were not present; goods found in legislation were subject to seizure • Why: first series of consumer protection laws enacted by the Federal Government; protected the public against dangers in food; response to the muckrakers that exposed the horrors of food industry Child labor laws • What: companies hired immigrant children at very young ages for a source of cheap labor; in case of Triangle Factory Fire many young girls died • Why: lead to child labor laws; Supreme Court declared them unconstitutional for several decades because they believed they shouldn’t be able to regulate businesses Lewis Hine • What: progressive; American sociologist and photographer; used his camera for social reform; photo of child standing in the mill; exposed many young children working in mills and factories at ages as young as 5 years • Why: his photos were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the US Jane Addams • What: pioneer social worker feminist; internationalist; reformer of Progressive Era; fought for issues of mothers such as needs of children, public health; and world peace; founded the Hull House in Chicago in 1889; drafted pieces of progressive legislation • Why: Hull House provided services for immigrants and poor population in Chicago area; prominent social reformer “progressive” taxation • What: income tax law passed after the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act of 1913 that reduced tariff barriers; increased tax on the high
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