1. Consult syllabus for Short Analysis assignment, due in section next week
PLEASE DO NOT DISRUPT CLASS BY LEAVING EARLY. TAs check.
History 40 C
20 Century United States History
Week 1, Friday:
Introduction to US in 1900:
Meet the Newcomers to America What Will We Do Today?
• United States tour of the US in 1900 focused on those born in the
• Today we meet some of the immigrants who were transforming US
life around 1900. We ask:
• How did the wave of so-called “new immigration” from Europe
and the restrictions on ithigration from Asia shape the US
population in the early 20 century? We will look at
– 1. Numbers of immigrants
– 2. Sources of immigration
– 3. Why immigrants came to the US
– 4. Characteristics of immigration
HINT: THE WAVE OF “NEW IMMIGRATION” IS AN VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT IN
THIS CLASS. YOU SHOULD UNDERSTAND POINTS 1-4 ABOVE! An Era of Global Migration:
Numbers of Immigrants
The century 1830-1930 saw the largest migration in
human history. Migration was a global, not just a US
– 50 million Europeans relocated overseas in the Americas,
Australia, and elsewhere
– 40 million Asians left for east Africa, America, Pacific islands,
– At the 1914 peak of migration, one in every 6 people in US was
foreign born; in Argentina, one in every three; in Canada, one in
every four. US: Note the high % of foreign-
born people around 1900
immigrants! Most came into the North and Midwest, avoiding the South. Who were these immigrants?
Where did they come from?
Why? What Was the So-Called the
• These so-called “New
Immigrants” came from
“new” places in Southern
and Eastern Europe.
How did they differ from
the “old immigration”?
These charts provide important data:
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2009/03/10/us/20090310-immigration-explorer.html?scp=5&sq=immigration&st=cse Why were there fewer
immigrants on the West Coast?
• Restrictions were passed on Asian immigration
– 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act restricted entry and
made Chinese in US permanent aliens
– Japanese immigrationreement” w/ Japan slowed
– For more detail see Timeline of Asian American
History http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/asian_voices/asian_timeline.cfm If these restrictions had not been passed, would
the American people have been much more Asian?
would the US have been settled more from
West to East rather than from East to West? WHY DID
Some ideas here. . . . Czech immigrants arriving in US around 1900
This ad is from the Pecirkuv Narodni kalendar/almanac - 1900, published in
Prague. F. Missler of Bremen was offering passage to America, Africa, or Australia
from the Port of Bremen, Germany. The ad, in Czech, was targeted for Czech and
Slovak peoples. Why Did Immigrants Come?
– Switch from sailing ships to steam vessels reduced ocean crossings from 5 weeks to 8
days! [shrinking of time and space]
– copper, etc) and farming (coffee, wool, wheat, beef); industryhuge growth of mining (coal,
– through which they were building. [see earlier slides]for immigrants to settle land
– Rapid population growth: European population doubled between 1800-1900 because of
better nutrition. China also experienced rapid population growth.
– Commercialized agriculture pushed people off the land.
– Religious or ethnic persecution (Jews, Armenians, others)
– Political instability (China, Mexico).
– MOST people (eg Italians and everyone else) sought economic opportunity Characteristics of Immigration
• Similar Characteristics that applied to most ethnic immigrant groups in
– Boom times brought immigration; depressions cut it off
– Most were young, between 20-35 yrs of age
– Generally poor but not destitute
– “Chains” of migrations: people follow relatives or neighbors who can help out
– Immigrants often faced discrimination and hostility