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Lecture 9

HISTORY 70F Lecture 9: Universities and the Theoretical Turn
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Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 70F
Professor
Baum

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Universities and the Theoretical Turn  Wednesday, May 3, 2017  1:02 PM  Middle Ages: (divided into 2 parts)  1. Dark Ages: Fall of Roman Empire  2. High and Late Middle Ages: Renaissance  a. Higher emphasis on education  i. Rise of institutions    The University  • Monks were one of the few who were literate  • Cathedral Schools (8‐9th c.)  ○ Original function: train priests  • How to read and write; how to read scripture, psalms  ○ Run by members of the clergy  ○ Over time: train sons of noble families  • Cathedral schools ‐‐> Universities  ○ Expanded, thus becoming universities  ○ Bologna (1180)  ○ Oxford (1200)  ○ Paris (1200)  ○ Cambridge (1209)  • Universitas: "group of people"  ○ Usually used as a measure word  • Ex: murder of crows  ○ Moved around from region to region  ○ Curriculum: trivium (grammar, rhetoric, logic); quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music)  • Many considered trivium easier than quadrivium  • Many did not graduate  • Expensive and many died due to plagues that were rampant at the time  • Usually entered around age of 13‐14  ○ Higher Faculties (13th c.): law, theology, medicine  • Similar to graduate school  Salerno  • A city in Southern Italy  • Had a huge impact on the development of the curriculum at other medical universities  • Reputation as health resort  ○ Wealthy nobles from all over western Europe and the Byzantine empire would come visit  • Rumor that water and air here were good for health  • Cultural & economic hub  ○ Exchange of information and ideas  • From Greek‐speaking world, Arabic‐speaking world, etc.  ○ Influx of medical texts  • ‐‐> center of medical knowledge  • Written in all sorts of languages  ○ Its location was ideal for gathering and dispersing information, along with the rumors of it being a health resort  • Schola Medica Salernitana (late 11th c.)  ○ First medical school in W. Europe  • Prior to 11th century, you were apprenticed to someone  • Many didn't think you needed a specialized school  • Legend of founding: founded by 4 master physicians who came from all over the world  • Latin, Jewish, Greek, Arabic  • Medical tradition brought together medical methods from all over  • Convergence of medical traditions taught at school  ○ Brings together multiple scholarly traditions (Greek, Roman, Arabic)  • Articella  ○ Medical canon: would be used in higher education throughout western Europe  ○ Effort to compile & standardize medical theory  • Drew from multiple medical traditions  • Writing from Hippocrates  • Commentaries from Galen 
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