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Lecture 28

HISTORY 36B Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Tissaphernes, Decelea, Sicilian Expedition


Department
History
Course Code
HISTORY 36B
Professor
Brusuelas
Lecture
28

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Austin Maldanado
Professor Brusuelas
History 36 B
Lecture
i. Athens in Decline
1. With nothing gained from the Sicilian Expedition, Athens faced a series of
problems
a. Athenian naval superiority ended
b. Athenian fleet now drastically reduced in numbers
c. Money was not in great abundance (no spoils of war)
d. Alliance members see a way out
2. Spartans, under Alcibiades advisement, sets up a fort at Decelea in
northwest Attica
a. Alcibiades gets the slaves from the nearby silver mines to defect to
Sparta at Decelea (no more silver)
b. Sparta began negotiating with Persia for naval support
c. Athens is now under siege
b. The thirty tyrants (lecture slide 21, textbook 359-360)
i. Civil Strife at Athens
1. With the inability to bring the war to a close, Athenian democracy was
weakened, decision making dominated by the Assembly perceived as a
failure to many
a. The thirty tyrants were athenian citizens, sympathetic to Sparta and
willing to sacrifice democratic principles
2. Those in favor of aristocracy/oligarchy saw an opportunity
3. 413 BCE decision making placed in the hands of a board of ten older men
(probouloi: sophocles was one)
a. Voted to tap emergency funds and rebuild the fleet
b. New ship used to prevent breakdown of the Delian League
ii. Alcibiades and Persia
1. Persian satraps Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes had authority under King
Darius the 2nd to form Persian policy toward the warring Greek cities
a. Tissaphernes initially organized treaties with Sparta, gold for
control of the Greek cities of Ionia
2. Alcibiades saw Persia’s entry into the conflict as a means to return to
Athens
a. Convinced Tissaphernes to not join Sparta so much and let Athens
and Sparta wear each other down
b. Sent word to Athens claiming he could bring Persia over to
Athen’s side, if recalled to Athens
iii. Oligarchy
1. The 400 moves to roll back democratic reforms in favor of wealthy
families who wanted a return of the traditional constitution” of Athens
(e.g. participation by and democracy for the few)
a. Pay for most state offices abolished
b. Dismissed remaining councils/officials
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