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Lecture 6

HUMAN 1C Lecture 6: 3.2 Sexual Violence, Race, and Colonialism

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Introduction and Overview - Legal and social definitions of rape - Racialization of sexual coercion - Social power = sexual power - Rape as political tool Racist Prosecution of Sexual Coercion 1700-1820 Anglo-America - 80% of executed men = African American - 96% victims = white Definitions and Images of Rape William Hogarth, Before and After image Before: The man is trying to persuade her to do sexual acts, woman tries to resist After: Sexual activity has taken place, woman is surrendering - Sex is like war Legal Definition of Rape - Capital crime (death) - Man on woman - Carnal knowledge against her will - Reluctance to convict Characteristics of a women who would most likely be raped: virgin, wife, white, or a man that she would never choose to have sex with Consent and force Carnal knowledge “by force and against her will” - Legally and violating someone’s rights is different - Joseph Lathan and Rhoda Howel “I did throw her down but had no desire(design) to force her…” - John Murphy Male aggression v. female resistance seems natural “Real” rape v. reality of rape Racialization of Sexual Coercion Household Coercion: Power of Patriarchs Masters - David Thayer - 18th century, represented what a lot of English men believed, that a female servant who is cooking, cleaning, doing wife tasks, can also do sexual activities like a wife - William Cress and Rachel Davis - Cress repeatedly will tell Davis to hold the light for him to have sex, the master/slave relation can make rape look consensual, Cress understands that raping is against Davis’ goodwill - Social and economic mastery contains sexual access as well Fathers - Hannah Rood - Father has sex with the daughter(not rape, incest)I am the head of the household, therefore I have control over your body Coercion in Courting James Paxton and Jane Mathers -- If women didn't resist, then it is not rape → logic is, if she did not resist, I would not have had to rape her → James tries to cast his actions as consensual **race and identity has a lot to do with how sex and rape is interpreted Jack and Sarah Scaggs -- convicted of rape of Sarah, sent to execution, Sarah was left with no character left to lose → Sarah really did consent, because she had intimacy with him - Because she bought fish and he gave her chicken = consent ??? Who can and who cannot coerce through courting? Enslavement, Race, and Sexual Vulnerability Sex as part of ownership - Slave traders - Twelve Years a Slave: Patsy Freedom? **free black women are not allotted the ability to be sexual and violent - Betty Cook, DE, 1816 -- kidnapped by slave traders, raped her along the way to the South - Elizabeth Amwood, MD, 1788 -- free black woman, white man grabbed her and cut the hair off her head, while his friend stood by with a pistol, forced another black man to get on top of her sexually (reiterating privilege of the white man) At Court: Testimony makes Race Interpret evidence through racial lens - Slaves can’t testify ** enslaved people cannot testify against white people **courts are set up for the disadvantage of slaves Black Defendant: - Hannah Beebe, 1756 -- testified that she had a seizure, was sure the man had carnal knowledge, rapist was killed - Elizabeth Truax, 1792 -- free black man raping her, sure the rapist had carnal
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