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Lecture 3

HUMAN 1C Lecture 3: 2.1 Gender Frontiers

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Introduction and Overview - Native American sexual practices and beliefs - Conflicts and interactions with Europeans What is Gender Frontiers? - Old definition: talking about settlement v. wilderness - Frontier -- Zone of contested control, multiple people meet, unsettled relationships of powers - Gender -- expectation of behavior based on sex - Gender frontier -- cultural encounters, challenge natural categories, role in colonization Native American General Practices - How can you know? → oral histories and myths Sexual World - Erotic part of natural world - Pueblo -- sang about sex, rituals about sexual relations - Holy Sexuality - Acoma: Pishuni(deity of water) entered Nautsiti’s body as rain and Nautsiti (human behaviors replicated in deities) - Corn Mother → very sexualized, mimicked heterosexual relationships - Cosmic Harmony → men and women come together - Modesty, shame, and virginity (applied to Europeans, not Native Americans) Native American Marriage Practices - Customs and rituals vary - Matrilineal (Eastern Woodland) - Patrilineal/Bilateral tendencies (Plains) - Patrilineal/Polgyny (California) - Serial Monogamy = not for life(regarding marriage) Virginity, Promiscuity and the Eye of the Beholder - Appearances - Virginity - European value - Savagery v. Civilization - Europeans often confuse nakedness as a sign of indecency → naked = advertising for sex European Colonization and Sexual Encounters Sex as a (Natural) Resource - Native American: land as body - Europeans subdue - Virgin land (land is a fruitful womb, allows men to reproduce) - Union with men - Thomas Morton on New England (1632) - Jane Sharp, Midwife on yards and seeds - Yards = penis **importance between the relation of land and sex European Images of Indians More Ethnographic Voyeurism - Giovannia da Verrazzano on Naragansett Fantasy of Sexual Paradise - Of birds, feet and native beauty (John Davis, 1798) Missionaries and culture conflict: Spanish Franciscans - Sexuality is central to conversion Spanish/Timucua Missionary Examples - Timucua language text(1612) - 4000 Christian converts French and Huron-Montagnais - Sexuality is central to conversion - Chastity - Serial M
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