LPS 29 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Toothpick

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LPS 29 - Lecture 2 – Argument Structure Part Two
1.6 Implicit Statements
Implicit Statements are statements not included in the given argument
Arguer must clearly want the implicit statement to be implied, but not stated
In breaking down an argument, one can draw out implied (implicit) statements from the
argument itself. For example:
o1 [The cookies in the kitchen disappeared when you and I were the only people
at home], but [I was in my room the entire time.]
Here, the implied conclusion is that the person being spoken to took the
cookies: 3 [You have taken the cookies.]
Note that the arguer never directly said that they didn’t take the cookies
o 1 + 2
Principle of Charity: the limit to how much we can assume in an implicit statement
oRequires giving the arguing party the benefit of the doubt and remaining faithful
to the arguing party’s thought.
Ex: 1 [Our family Pitbull did not attack our son when he pulled her tail,]
which goes to show that 2 [our dog is nothing to be scared of.]
In this argument, a non-charitable conclusion would be that, 3a
[there have been Pitbulls who have attacked small children.]
This is not a charitable conclusion, because it is not what the
arguer intended to say, and the arguer did not specifically state
that all Pitbulls are nothing to be scared of.
A conclusion that follows the principle of charity would be that, 3b
[Our family Pitbull is not aggressive].
In this example, 1 + 2
In some cases, both the premise and conclusion can be implied/implicit
o1 [If you came to the party, I wouldn’t have been alone.]
oUnstated premise:
2 [You weren’t at the party.]
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oUnstated conclusion:
3 [I was alone.]
oIn this example, 1 + 2
In arguments with several steps and implicit and non-implicit conclusions and premises,
several implications must be made.
o1 [Brownies taste good when the brownie and eggs are fully baked] because 2
[brownie batter contains raw eggs.] 3 [To make sure your brownies will taste
good, stick a toothpick in it to check if it is still mushy.]. 4 [Your brownies are still
Implicit Conclusions and Premises
o5 Raw eggs in brownies do not taste good
o6 Brownies are mushy when they are not baked
o8 You want your brownies to taste good
o7 you should bake your brownies longer
2 + 5
1 + 3 + 6 + 8 + 4
1.8 Formal vs Informal Logic
Formal Logic
oThe study of abstract patterns of forms that can be applied to arguments
oCan represent all topics of arguments
oNote: Formal logic is not just about structure, because the premise and
conclusion must also be distinguishable
Informal Logic
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oThe study of argument content, and its language
oFocuses on context and the actual meaning of words in the argument
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