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Lecture 14

MGMT 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Extraversion And Introversion, Work Unit, Conscientiousness

Course Code
MGMT 102
Jennifer Hite

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Chapter 14: Leadership: Styles and Behaviors
1. Describe the similarities and differences between leading and managing.
a. The managing “push”, rational and task-oriented. Managers generally tell people what to do; focus on
events and processes, control complexity in the organization and its environment. Administer, Maintain,
Control, Short-term view, Ask how and when, Implement, accept status quo, Do things right
b. Leadership “pull”, people focused. Leaders don’t typically tell people what to do. leaders motivate team
members by appealing to them at an individual level and by inspiring them to contribute to the overall
vision. Leaders produce useful change in organizations.Innovate, Develop, Inspire, Long-term view, Ask what and
why, Originate, Challenge status quo, Do the right things
2. Critically examine the statement: "Leaders are born, not made." What theory of leadership espouses this
a. Trait Theory of Leadership: All leaders share certain physical or personality traits that differentiate
them from non-leaders.
b. Behavioral Theories: Focusing on What Leaders Do: Challenged assumption that leaders are born, not
made; Defined “leadership” in actual behaviors; Drawback – leadership style didn’t change with situation.
c. Focusing on the Situation (contingency theory): There is not just one best way to lead; Most effective
leadership style depends on the situation; Leader’s most effective style depends on types of contingencies
(situational elements) that are present.
c.i. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: Leader’s effectiveness is contingent upon the leader’s style and on the situation.
Leader’s style cannot be changed. Either High LPC (relationship-oriented). Or Low LPC (task-oriented). If a
mismatch occurs between style and the situation, change the situation. Situation must change because leader style
cannot be changed. Least-Preferred Coworker. How favorable leadership situation is depending on: Leader-member
relations, degree of trust, respect, confidence subordinates have in leader, Task structure, Are goals and roles clear?
Leader’s position power, Amount of formal, legitimate power leader has.
c.ii. House’s Path-Goal Theory
d. Focusing on followers: Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
2. Differentiate between initiating structure and consideration. Behavioral Theories
a. Initiating structure: the extent to which the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in
pursuit of goal attainment.
b. Consideration: the extent to which the leader create job relationships characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings.
3. What is transformational leadership? Describe the "four I's" of transformational leadership. Behavioral
a. Inspire followers to trust leader, to contribute to achievement of organizational goals and to perform at
a high level; inspire followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while
also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from
new perspectives.
b. Idealized Influence (Charisma): Behavior that earns trust, admiration and respect of followers, so that
followers want to emulate the leader.
c. Inspirational Motivation: Behavior that fosters enthusiasm for and commitment to shared vision.
d. Intellectual Stimulation: Challenges followers to be innovative and creative by reframing
e. Individualized Consideration: Helping followers reach potential through individualized coaching.
f. Transformational leaders positively affect performance. Particularly task performance and CB; Also
positively influence commitment, Affective and Normative.
4. Compare transactional and transformational leadership. Behavioral Theories
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a. Transactional leadership: Helps organizations achieve their current objectives by linking job
performance to valued rewards; the leader rewards or disciplines the lollwer depending on the
adequacy of the follower’s performance. Focus on interpersonal transactions between managers and
a.i. Passive Management by exception: the leader waits around for mistakes and errors then takes
corrective action as necessary.
a.ii. Active management by exception: the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and
again takes corrective action when required.
a.iii. Contingent reward: a more active and effective brand of transactional leadership, the leader
attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in
exchange for adequate performance.
a.iv. Day-to-day leaders.
a.v. Laissez-faire leadership(hands-off): the avoidance of leadership altogether.
b. Transactional leadership styles are more concerned with maintaining the normal flow of operations. A
transformational leader goes beyond managing day-to-day operations and crafts strategies for taking
his company, department or work team to the next level of performance and success. Transformational
leadership styles focus on team-building, motivation and collaboration with employees at different
levels of an organization to accomplish change for the better. Transactional leaders = efficient;
Transformational = visionary.
5. What is charisma? How is a charismatic leader different from a transformational leader?
a. Charismatic Leaders: By force of their personalities, they are capable of having a profound and
extraordinary effect on followers (House)
b. Have: Strong need for power; Exceptionally high levels of self-confidence; Strong belief in espoused
ideas and ideals. Able to: Model desired behaviors for followers; Communicate high expectations for
follower behavior; Engage in extensive impression management; Emphasize ideals, values, and lofty
goals; Enable emotional contagion of positive emotions.
c. Trans vs. char.
c.i. Charisma = form of interpersonal attraction whereby followers develop respect for and trust in
charismatic individual.
c.ii. Transformational leadership = mainly abut behaves that people use to lead the change process.
c.iii. Charisma = adopt leader’s view … no further.
c.iv. Transformational = attempts to instill in followers ability to question established views & those of
6. Describe the leader-member exchange theory. Explain the two types of dyads.
a. Describes how leader-member relationship develop over time on a dyadic basis. Leaders have
different relationships with different subordinates.
b. Role taking, manager describes role expectations to an employee and the employee attempts to fulfill
those expectations with job behaviors. Role making, the employee’s own expectations for the dyad get
mixed in with those of the leader.
c. In-group members: Have common bond, common value system with leader. Characterized by mutual
trust, respect and liking.
d. Out-group members: Less in common with leader: Characterized by lack of mutual trust, respect and
e. In-group more likely to engage in OCB. Out-group more likely to engage in withdrawal behaviors and
counterproductive behaviors
7. Describe the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. What theory of motivation is it based on?
a. Focuses on how leaders can influence follower’s expectations.
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