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Lecture 8

MGMT 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Bounded Rationality, Goal Orientation, Selective Perception


Department
Management
Course Code
MGMT 102
Professor
Jennifer Hite
Lecture
8

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Chapter 8: Learning and Decision Making- moderate positive with performance; weak positive with commitment
1. Organizations impart certain types of knowledge to employees through formal training whereas some
forms of information cannot be communicated through such trainings. Identify and compare the two
types of knowledge this information represents.
a. Explicit Knowledge: relatively easily communicated and a large part of what companies teach.
b. Tacit Knowledge: can typically learn only through experience.
2. Explain each of the four contingencies of reinforcement (Operant Conditioning).
a. Positive reinforcement: Rewards for desired behavior.
b. Negative reinforcement: Desired behavior results in the removal of a negative consequence.
c. Punishment: unwanted behavior results in undesired outcome.
d. Extinction: Offer no consequence, either positive or negative, to the behavior; removal of a
consequence following an unwanted behavior.
3. Compare and contrast the five schedules of reinforcement.
a. Continuous reinforcement: when specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a
desired behavior. Rapid learning but difficult to remain. Costly. High.
b. Fixed interval schedule: rewarded after a certain amount of time. Average.
c. Variable interval schedules: rewards more random points in time. Slower learning, Less costly,
more resistant to extinction. Moderately high.
d. Fixed ratio schedules: reward after a fixed number of desired behavior. High potential level.
e. Variable ration schedules: reward after a varying number of exhibited behaviors. Very high.
4. Define social learning theory. Explain the four steps of the modeling process.
a. People in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others.
b. Attentional Processes: focuses attention on the critical behaviors exhibited.
c. retention Process: remember the behaviors of the model once the model is no longer present.
d. Production Process: have the appropriate skill set and be able to reproduce the behavior.
e. Reinforcement: view the model receiving reinforcement for the behavior and then reveive it
themselves.
4.1 Goal Orientation
a. learning orientation: Building competence is more important than demonstrating competence
(Improves self-confidence, feedback-seeking, learning strategy development and leaning
performance.)
b. Performance-prove: Demonstrating competence so that others will think favorably of us.
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