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Lecture 9

PHILOS 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Set Theory, Monty Hall Problem, When I Walk

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Sven Bernecker

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Puzzle and paradox Final Review
# 15 Can one ship be made into two identical ships? (Chapter 10)
Thee is a ship alled The ship of Theseus that has been replacing its planks over time with one
plank at a time until all its original planks are replaced. During the time, someone has hoarded all
the replaced planks and finally uses them to build another new ship. While there are two ships
right now, one is the ship of Theseus with all new planks, one is a new ship built with all the
original materials of the ship of Theseus, are there two identical ships? If not, which one should be
the real ship of Theseus?
This puzzle is about a metaphysical issue about what does it take for something to remain its
identity across time. People who believe that the name of an object, or the social recognition of
an object makes the object it is will say as long as the original ship will be continued be called and
eogized as the ship of Theseus, it is the eal oigial ship o atte ho a plaks ee
replaced. On the other hand, people who believe that the physical construction make an object
the object will say the new ship with all the original planks is the real ship since it has the original
materials that make the ship it is.
People may also use relative identity to solve this puzzle, which they will say if the ship of Theseus
will new planks is identical with the original one depends on identical in what sense. It does not
have identical woods but it has identical name with the real original ship, so it depends. It seems
to address the problem but relative identity also has its own problem which is being too sneaky
and baffling.
#16 Is identity relative? (Chapter 10)
There is a way to define identity as a relative relationship instead of an absolute one. With relative
identity, one thing is related to other in certain relations. For example, when we say something is
the same as something else, it depeds hat e ea  the sae. Such as when we have to
people both named Alice Lee, instead of simply stating that A is the same as B, we say A is the
same name as B, but A is Not the same person as B. Therefore, the core determine identity is
aout the sae hat. As a pesos ells hae ee eeig oe tie, it is the sae peso
when he is at 40 compare to himself at 20, but it is not the same cells compare to 20 years ago. So,
it depends what we mean when we say if the person is the same as himself 20 years ago.
It seems like the relative identity is address all the problems of identity through changes.
However, it also has its own problem which is being too sneaky and baffling all the time, and it is
also weakening the notion of identity since it allows a pre-condition to determine the conclusion
of identity. Doing so is making identity less meaningful and less convincible. Instead, Identity
should be identity as itself; Resemblances are not identity.
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# 17 What is the problem of the criterion? (Chapter 11)
When we hold knowledge or belief of something, such as this apple is edible or the sky is not
green, we need have certain criterion to discriminate them. However, in order to use certain
criterion to discriminate things, we also need to make sure that criterion is true too, and in order
to know that we need another criterion to discriminate it that criterion is true. So, it seems like for
every criterion, in order to be used as principle of discrimination, needs its own criterion, and it
can never end.
An opposition of this situation is that criterion do not work in a way which one address the other
in a liner way. Instead, we have a web of believes which they stand all together. if they fit well
together, being coherent in the network, we can reasonably confident to go alone with it.
Therefore, there is no such a liner arrangement that one statement must be explained by another.
No individual statement as the criterion, the whole coherent of everything is the criterion.
# 18 Can there be an end to the search for justifications? (Chapter 11)
Our knowledge and beliefs are justified, otherwise we have no reason to believe in the way we
believe instead of other ways. However, a belief can be justified only if the justification is justified
too, therefore, it seems like for every justification, there is a need to the search for justifications,
and it seems like we can trace back forever. So, what should be the beginning of justification?
When we justify, where should we start?
A solution for this puzzle is the hypothetico-deductive model, which scientists usually make
hypotheses about how the world is before they establish any theory, and those hypotheses would
be their starting points. A starting point could be a very abstract and vague statement about
certain phenomenon, so it is hard to directly justified or falsified by any existing data. But when
the hypothesis get developed and deduced to a testable level, if the observable data confirm the
hypothesis, then the consequence provides justification for the starting point and the hypothesis
become a theory that justified certain nature law. Therefore, justification does not only work in
one way which a theory justifies a phenomenon, but also the other way around that the
observable phenomenon justifies the hypothesis made at the beginning and increase the
confidence in the theory.
#19 Can a statement of my existence be undeniable?
This puzzle is about the cogito statement I thik, theefoe I a. Everything I am thinking of
could be false, and I could be deceived, but in order to be deceived and thinking of something
false, I have to exist first. Therefore, no matter whatever I believe or think, as long as I know I am
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