# PHILOS 2 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Naive Set Theory, Monty Hall Problem, When I Walk

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Philosophy 2 Notes The puzzles and paradoxes second half
# 15 Can one ship be made into two identical ships? (Chapter 10)
Replacing planks on a ship over time, consider it the same ship after
took off the fist plaks, the seod plaks…. Put the plaks o the
side. until no original planks/wood on the ship. I have an original ship
(ship of Theseus) with all new planks, and I used the old planks from
the original ship to build another ship, with the exactly same materials
(ship of Pegasus). Are these two distinct ships identical to each
other? Which one is the real-original ship? What about the other one?
World is constructed by concept, people use different languages think
differently. Words are differentiated differently and represent things
differently. World is constituted by how you think about it and talk
What does it take for something to remain its identity across
time/over changes? Name of an object, the social recognition, or ?
Metaphysical issue. Identity notion.
At what time a ship become a ship (instead of a bunch of planks)
during construction?
As log as e otiue all the ship of , as log as e use it as the
way we did before, it is that ship.
What makes the ship make the ship it is -> the new ship is the ship of
Theseus.
#16 Is identity relative? (Chapter 10)
One way to address the problem of identity through changes: we use
relative identity instead of absolute identity. Relative identity: what
this thing is related to its relation to other things. X=y (absolute); x= ay
(a is the relationship, x= what y)
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The name of the same student shows up twice. X=ay (a= person); x!
=ay (a= name)
The core determine identity relative: the same what?
No single cell in my body is the same as 20 years ago. Am I at 67
identical with the I in 20? The same person yes; the same cells no.
The ship problem: depends on what? same wood? No; same ship
name? Yes.
Relative identity: Depends what you mean by who, depends what you
mean by identity.
Are you satisfied with a relative identity explanation? Would you want
a more concrete/convincible/absolute/strong answer? Sneaky.
Should relative identity be the only way to understand identity? Or
should it be given up? A major metaphysical step.
Relative identity is Calling a weaker relation as identity. But Identity is
identity as itself. Resemblances are not identity. Doing so is weakening
the identity notion.
# 17 What is the problem of the criterion? (Chapter 11)
Epistemology: doctrine/theory of knowledge
Skepticism
hat do ou ko?
o I have two hands
o Sky is blue
o
how do you know you know that? What is the criteria that you can say
ou ko it istead of just elieig it, o eig ipessed  it…
What makes you sure that you know it?
Criteria: principle of discrimination. Maybe the criteria of know is to
have facial evidence.
But criteria are something we need to know too, otherwise how do we
trust/ reply on those criteria.
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No matter what criteria is offered What is the criteria of you know the
criteria?
Self-applicable
Liner arrangement: if I have a belief, that belief have a foundation, and
that foudatio ust hae its foudatio….
But it is not how things work.
o We have a Web of believes, which they stand all together, if
they fit well together, being coherent in the network, we can
reasonably confident to go alone with it. There is no such a liner
arrangement that one statement must be explained by another.
o Dreams are disconnected, they do not form a coherent web.
Reality, on the other hand, seem to fit together coherently.
o Coherentism: there is no individual statement as the criteria, the
whole coherent of everything is the criteria.
# 18 Can there be an end to the search for justifications? (Chapter 11)
Epistemology is established by proving things.
How do you justify your justification? What justify the principles?
Principles in physics or other science don't just come, they were
proved/found somehow by human. While different systems of
principles that have their own coherent views, what make us decide
some principles other than other? How do we justify, start somewhere
instead of somewhere else? The choice of principles seems arbitrary.
The hypothetical deductive model
o A scientist would make some hypotheses hypothesis about how
the world is, those hypotheses would be his starting point. The
hypotheses would be very abstract and vague to compare with
any data at the beginning, but when it comes to conclusions, it
might come to something that can be checked/reflected. Make
hypotheses-> deduce some staff until it able to check->
confirming the theory, if checks out -> it is the consequence
provides the justification for the starting point.
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## Document Summary

Philosophy 2 notes the puzzles and paradoxes second half. # 15 can one ship be made into two identical ships? (chapter 10: replacing planks on a ship over time, consider it the same ship after took off the fi(cid:396)st pla(cid:374)ks, the se(cid:272)o(cid:374)d pla(cid:374)ks . Put the pla(cid:374)ks o(cid:374) the side. until no original planks/wood on the ship. I have an original ship (ship of (cid:862)theseus(cid:863)) with all new planks, and i used the old planks from the original ship to build another ship, with the exactly same materials (ship of (cid:862)pegasus(cid:863)). What about the other one: world is constructed by concept, people use different languages think differently. Words are differentiated differently and represent things differently. Name of an object, the social recognition, or : metaphysical issue. #16 is identity relative? (chapter 10: one way to address the problem of identity through changes: we use relative identity instead of absolute identity.

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