PP&D 177 Lecture 5: ChicanoMovementMidtermFinalStudyGuide

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Planning, Policy, and Design
PP&D 177
Rodolfo Torres

STUDY GUIDE TOPICS ● Chicano Nationalism ○ Aztlan - legendary land of the Aztecs, southern US ○ Chicano - an ethnic pride symbol ● Salt of the Earth film: It’s Importance in the Chicano Movement ○ Captured the drama of the strike and underscored the issues of gender roles in the family ○ 1950 miners’ strike in SIlver City, New Mexico ○ Miners were prohibited from picketing, so their wives took over the picket lines and succeeded in keeping the strike alive ● Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty: ○ Signed after the defeat of Mexico by the US in 1848 ○ Granted Mexicans remaining in the newly acquired US territories certain rights pertaining to poverty, religion, culture, and education ○ Broken treaty ● Poor People’s Movement ○ 1968 March on Washington ○ Economic justice for poor people in the US ○ Organized by MLK jr. and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ○ The campaign demanded economic and human rights for poor Americans of diverse backgrounds. After presenting an organized set of demands to Congress and executive agencies, participants set up a 3,000-person protest camp on the Washington Mall, where they stayed for six weeks in the spring of 1968. ○ The living together with many chicanos led to a strong bond between various chicano movement groups ○ Many chicanos stayed at a different location - a nearby school? ○ The acknowledgement and participation was what was important and chicanos were empowered ● Brown Berets origins ○ Emerged late 1960s ○ Part of the third movement for liberation ○ A radical non-student youth organization that emerged to confront police brutality and drug pushers in the Mexican American community ○ Perceived as Chicano counterparts to the Black Panther Party ■ Did not share the Marxist/Maoist ideology of the Black Panthers ○ Played a significant part of the first national Mexican Mass protest against the war in Vietnam on August 29, 1970 in LA ○ Also protected students during the walkouts ● Blowouts aka Walkouts ○ Student protests against racism in the largely segregated schools of East Los Angeles (The United Mexican American Students (UMAS) ○ Took place in the first week of March ○ Called for freedom of speech, hiring of Mexican American teachers and administrators, and classes on Mexican American history and culture ○ -the strike became “The Birth of the Brown Power” ● BoB Blauner sociologist contribution to race relations theory ○ Theorized the concept of internal colonialism ■ Saw racism through the division of the working class ■ Advocated race equality and equal opportunities ● Accomplishments of the Chicano Student Movement ○ The last accomplishment was the establishment of Chicano Studies programs, research centers, and departments throughout the nation ■ Produced a new generation of Chicano and Chicano scholars ■ Contributed to the rise of a new professional middle class in the areas of public education, law, social welfare, public health, business sector, and profit community organizations dealing with issues confronting poor Mexican Americans and other Latinos and Latinas ○ Contributed to the expansion of civil rights for Mexican Americans ● Aztlan is the mythical land of the Chicano nation; home to Central Mexico; ancestral homeland ● East LA Walkouts ○ Conspiracy to disrupt the educational system of the city of LA ● Mexican American Generation: revived the old barrio term Chicano as a symbol of new ethnic awareness and political power ○ 1965-1970: renewed identity and empowerment ○ Transformed Mexican Americans into Chicanos ○ Initially considered the conquered generation since Mexico lost half of its territory in the US-Mexico War ● Chicano Student Movement: MECha (dominant student organization) ○ In March of 1969, at Denver, Colorado the Crusade for Justice organized the first National Chicano Youth Liberation Conference that drafted the basic premises for the Chicana/Chicano Movement in El Plan de Aztlán. ○ The following month, in April of 1969, over 100 Chicanas/Chicanos came together at University of California, Santa Barbara to formulate a plan for higher education: El Plan de Santa Barbara. With this document they were successful in the development of two very important contributions to the Chicano Movement: Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA) and Chicano Studies. ○ The adoption of the name Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan signaled a new level of political consciousness among student activists. It was the final stage in the transformation of what had been loosely organized, local student groups, into a single structure and a unified student movement. ○ Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA) is a dominant, student organization that promotes higher education, cultura, and historia. MEChA was founded on the principles of self-determination for the liberation of our people. We believe that political involvement and education is the avenue for change in our society. ○ MEChA: means “fuse in spanish” ○ Represented the transformation of loosely organized local student groups into a single unified student movement ○ Symbolized the emergence of a new generation of decolonized youth “La Raza Nueva” (new people or reborn youth ■ Encourages students to see themselves as part of a new Chicano generation committed to militant struggle against oppressive US institutions ● Nationalist faction vs. internationalist faction of the movement: ○ Nationalists: identify strongly with a group of people and the homeland ○ Interrnationalists: advocate for building coalitions based on class that transcend ethnic and national boundaries ○ Tension between these two factions/political identities within the Chicano movement ○ Nationalist: El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan: reinforced cultural nationalism ■ La Raza ● Crusade for Justice: founded by Corky Gonzales in 1965 which was considered a civil rights organization without involvement in electoral politics ○ Militant Chicano liberation organization ○ Supported the student walk outs ○ Opposition to the Vietnam war ● Chicano Moratorium: movement of Chicano anti-war activists that opposed the Vietnam War ○ Aka the Chicano Moratorium Committee ○ August 29th, 1970 ○ Rosalio Munoz (organizer of the protest), Gloria Arellanes (Adelitas de Aztlan),and Raul Ruiz (covered the moratorium in La Raza magazine) were all participants of the Chicano Moratorium ○ Chicanos disproportionately being drafted into the military to fight the war bc their high schools were not encouraging them to seek higher education ● Development of Mexican American Studies curriculum ○ Importance of Mexican History and Culture in school curriculum ■ Positive impact on learning ■ Improved rates compared to 90% drop out rates ○ T.U.S.D Mexican American Studies curriculum ■ Banning Mexican American studies in Tuscon School board in Arizona ○ First Amendment protections ■ Free speech that allowed student’s right to receive and protect student rights ■ Cannot be interfered with based on race, citizenship, and viewpoint ■ Can’t eliminate the curriculum based on race ● Equal Protection Clause: discrimination ● Influence of Black Power and civil rights movement on the Chicano Movement ○ Chicanismo adopted the concept of self-determination from other social protest movement such as the Black Power movement ■ Black Power: assertive identity centered on ethnic pride and self- discovery influence ● Zoot Suit Riots: took place in Los Angeles ○ Sleepy Lagoon murder trial (1942) ■ Fostered hate and prejudice towards Mexican Americans in the community ● Meaning of Zoot Suiters: poor and working class Mexicans ● Until the lions have their historians tales of the hunted will always glorify the hunter ● 1968: SF state college organized TWLF (Third World Liberation) ○ Major strikes ○ 3rd college: ethnic studies ○ Open admission ● Who was Corky Gonzales and Cesar Chavez ○ Cesar Chavez: Mexican American who led the farm worker movement in California in 1965 with Dolores Huerta ○ Corky Gonzales was the national leader of the emerging Chicano movement ■ The Denver strike contributed to the development of the Crusade for Justice and resulted in violent confrontations between police, students, and members of the Crusade for Justice ■ Contributed to the development of LRUP (La Raza Unida Party aka the political party of the Plan de Aztlan) as the independent Chicano political party ■ Advocated a radical focus that departed from working within the existing political system ■ “I am Joaquin”8 ● Who was Reis Tijierina (radical) ○ Led the land grant struggle in New Mexico that aimed to recapture land stolen by white colonizers after the Mexico-US War. ○ Tijierina founded the Alianza Federal de Mercedes; an organization that demonstrated the struggle ○ -40 Alianza members were wrongly arrested for what had been the first militant armed action taken by Mexican Americans anywhere in the Southwest ● Ruben salazar is killed in bar by a tear-gas projectile (who/what was he known for?) ○ Journalist for LA times AFTER MIDTERM READINGS ● Introduction by Mario Garcia ○ 1916-1975: Chicano Movement; influenced by Black Power movement ○ Chicano history teacher at san jose ○ Identified with chicano movement and participated in the marches ○ Chicano movement used politically by a new generation to express the militant demands for civil rights, ethnic pride, and community empowerment ○ Oral testimony of life, struggles, and experiences of activists ■ Intended to educate and others and inspire them ○ Ruiz, Arellanes, and Munoz are group-centered leaders ○ Chicano Generation is the testimonio tradition ○ Cesar Chavez: farmworkers’ struggle ○ Walkouts, Organization of La Raza Unida Party (independent Chicano political party), Chicana feminist movements, organizing of undocumented workers, movement-inspired literacy, and etc ○ Chicano movement was the largest and most widespread civil rights and empowerment struggle by Mexican Americans ○ Black civil rights movement, white student movement, anti-Vietnam War movement, and women’s movement all affected the Chicano Movement ■ Black Power: assertive identity centered on ethnic pride and self- discovery influence ○ Aztlan to be north of the Valley of Mexico; Southwestern region of the US ○ The movement redefined la familia as the community: all Chicanos were linked in a collective cultural family ○ Chicanismo adopted the concept of self-determination from other social protest movement such as the Black Power movement ○ Reies Lopez Tijerina of New Mexico organized a land-grant movement in northern New Mexico ■ La Alianza Federal de Mercedes: loss of lands by Hispanic ■ Focused on land issues ■ Emphasized the lost of Hispano lands embraced the Chicano movement ○ Brown Berets similar to the Black Panther Party ■ Illustrated that the movement was not just high school and college students, but also community based-activists whose political work was in the barrios ○ National Chicano Anti War Moratorium led by Rosalio Munoz highlighted how the Vietnam War negatively affected the Chicano Movement ■ Chicanos were disproportionately drafted into the military bc high schools were not encouraging them to seek higher education ○ Chicana feminist movements such as Hijas de Cuahtemoc ■ Convened conferences and publish newspapers that reflected Chicana feminist perspectives ■ Sought to change gender relations within the movement ■ Faced gender discrimination, racial discrimination, class prejudice, and etc ○ Ruiz played a key role in Educational Issues Coordination Committee (EICC): took up student demands and opened up discussions with the school board ■ Editor of La Raza Magazine ● Most influential movement publication in LA and southern CA ○ Gloria Arellanes involved in the Brown Berets in 1967 ■ Spanish-Speaking Youth Leadership Conference became the Chicano Youth Leadership Conference (CYLC) ■ Berets focused on challenging police abuse ○ Rosalio Munoz became involved in student politics in UCLA ○ All demonstrations of the Chicano Power ● Gloria Arellanes by Mario Garcia ○ Born on March 4, 1946 in the Mayo Clinic on Soto Street ○ Attended El Monte HS ■ Now started calling herself Chicanos; rejected in previous year saying that she was an American ■ Racial tension at school led to fights between whites and Chicanos ■ Mr. John Bartan (a counselor) recognized that Chicanos needed an outlet to develop their leadership ■ Represented the Spanish-Speaking Youth Leadership Conference (Mexican American Youth Leadership Conference) ○ Brown Berets rose in 1967 ■ Most militant group of the emerging Chicano movement ■ Nationalistic about how Chicanos were being treated ■ Developed good relation with the Black Panthers ● Similar style, ideology,and politics ● Form of protection ■ Focused on community empowerment ● ‘To serve, observe, and protect’: serve the community, observe conditions in the community such as police abuse and lack of social services, and to protect our community against the police in a sense against racism ■ Ten-Point Program of the Black Panther Party; ‘survival program” ● Unity of our people regardless of age, income, religion, or philosophy ● Demand the right to bi-lingual education as guaranteed by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ● Demand the true history of the Chicano be taught in all schools of the five Southwest States ● Demand a civilian police review board made up of the police who live in our community ● Demand that all police officers in the Chicano community must live in the community and speak the Spanish language ● Demand that all Chicanos whose homes get removed by Urban Renewal be given job training to acquire employment that will enable them to live in the new homes built in their barrios ● Demand a guaranteed annual income of $5,000 for all Chicano families ● Demand that all juries that try our people be composed of an equal number of people of each race: whites, blacks, orientals, and Chicanos. And that the jury be just of the same economic and social status of the defendant. ● Demand that the literary text for voting be given in the Spanish language and that persons who speak on SPanish be given the same voting rights as any other person ● Keep and bear arms and use them against any threatening elements from outside our community such as the police or right wing extremist groups and use them against any traitors from within our own community ○ Most controversial point ○ Priorities focused on police abuse ○ Biltmore Case in April 1969: involved undercover cops ■ Berets disrupted a speech by Gov. Ronald Reagan at the downtown Biltmore Hotel ■ Led to the arrests and prosecutions of some of the Berets and non-Berets on arson charges on claims by the police as part of the disruption ■ Undercover cop, Fernando Sumaya, that had done this not the Berets ○ Editor of “La Causa’ (beret newspaper) ○ Fed 1969: first National Chicano Youth Liberation Conference held in Denver hosted by Corky Gonzalez and the Crusade for Justice ■ Drafting El Plan de Aztlan: concept of chicanismo ○ Establishment of El Barrio Free Clinic: service to the community ■ Clinic considered as ‘women’s work’ ○ Las Adelitas de Aztlan: Beret women and other women that gave birth to Chicana feminism ● Road to Political Empowerment ○ Corky Gonzales found the Crusade for Justice (CFI) which was considered a civil rights organization without involvement in electoral politics ○ ‘I am Joaquin” became the movimiento anthem ○ Rise of La Raza Unida Party ● Interview with Bill Gallegos ○ Brown Berets similar to the Black Panther Party ○ United Farm Workers (UFW): health of farm workers ○ Aug 29th movement: first region-wide Chicano/Latino socialist organization ● Legacy of Chicano Movement ○ Mexico Lindo: middle and upper-class exiled conservatives from the Mexican Revolution ○ Chicano Studies programs and departments throughout the Southwest ○ UMAS: United MExican American Students ○ Luis Valdez attempt at El Teatro Campesino in order to provide political drama and motivation to the United Farm Workers Union ○ ● Chicano Left Turn ○ El Congreso del Pueblo de Habla Espanola set an agreement focused on immigration policy, worker’s rights, education, and affordable housing ○ National Chicano Moratorium Committee formed in LA by the Brown Berets emphasized ‘war at home’ faced by working class- people ■ Aug. 29, 1970: demonstration in LA- law enforcement agencies rioted killing three ppl ● Dangerous Minds in Tucson: The Banning of Mexican American Studies and Critical Thinking in Arizona ○ CLASS program: [email protected] literature, art, and social studies READINGS + NOTES ● “Chicano Movement” by Carlos Munoz Jr. (April 2003) ○ The Mexican American Civil RIghts Movement was known as the Chicano Movement as a product of the politics of the 1960s ○ Labor unions supported restriction of immigration bc they believed that Mexicans took jobs away from white workers ○ Jesus Salvatierra v. Independent School District in Del RIo, Texas (1930): sued that Mexican American students were being deprived of resources given to white students ■ Ruled in favor of Salvatierra, but overturned it on appeal from white opposition ○ Roberto Alvarez v. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove School district ■ Sued the elementary school for preventing 75 Mexican American children from enrolling in an all-white school ■ Court Ruled in favor of Alvarez, but did not result in the termination of segregation elsewhere ○ Mendez v. Westminister contributed directly to ending segregation throughout the the state and led to the passage of legislation prohibiting segregation in California ■ Signed by Governor Earl Warren ■ Set the important legal precedent for ending racial segregation throughout the United States ○ Emma Tenayuca: Mexican American women who was a member of the Community party and organized the strike of shellers in San Antonio, Texas (1938) ○ Mexican American Political Association (MAPA)” represented a new professional sector of emerging Mexican AMerican middle class committed to a reformist politics of accommodation and assimilation within the two-political party system ○ Farm worker movement in California in 1965 led by Mexican Americans Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta provided inspiration to Mexican American youth ■ Valdez wrote the Plan of delano which defined the farm worker movement as a nonviolent revolution for social justice led by the “sons of the Mexican Revolution” ● First concrete call for the political coalitions among poor ppl of color in the US ● Underscored the reality of the farm worker movement ○ Reies Lopez Tijerina founded the Alianza Federal de Mercedes ■ 40 members wrongly arrested for the first militant armed action taken by Mexican Americans anywhere in the Southwest ○ United Mexican American Students (UMAS): the largest and played a significant role in organizing high school student protests against racism in the largely segregated schools of LA ○ Jose Angel Gutierrez was one of the founders of La Raza Unida Party ○ 2 conferences that contributed to the development of the Chicano Movement ■ 1.) National conference held in March 1969 in Denver, Colorado, hosted by the Crusade for Justice ● Conferenced produced a document called El Plan de Aztlan ○ Legendary point of origin of the indigenous Mechica (Aztecs) ancestors of the Mexican people ■ 2.) Statewide California conference held at the University of Santa Barbara (“El Plan de Santa Barbara”) ● Proposed 3 basic goals for the students movement ○ 1.) MEChA was to connect the Mexican American community by participating in local struggles for civil rights ○ 2.) Establish as a power base on campuses to increase the presence of Mexican American youth in institutions of higher education ○ 3.) Play a role in the creation and implementation of Chicano Studies departments and programs with curricula focusing on the Mexican American experience ○ Furthered the goals of the Plan de Aztlan National Conference ■ Goal of the movement: creation of independent political party and ppl’s cooperatives in the internal Mexican American colonies known as barrios ■ Plan de Aztlan (Chicano independent political party) later became La Raza Unida Party (LRUP) ■ Centro de Accion Social Autonoma (CASA): introduced the concept “sin fronteras” (without borders); which called for transnational politics that joined Mexican struggles in the US with revolutionary movements in Mexico ● Focused on the organization of undocumented Mexican workers and pushed for the development of a national immigrant rights movement ■ August 29th Movement (ATM) focused on Mexican American worker and campesino struggles ● Plan for the establishment of a Chicano nation within those territories of the Southwestern United States with a majority or the Chicano population ● Called for the establishment of a multinational communist party in the US ■ Teatro Campesino (Farmworker Theatre) contributed to the development of Chicano/a actors ● Created Teatros Nacionales de Atzlan (TENAZ) as a college campuses and cultural centers in Mexican American communities ■ Proposition 187 called for the termination of government health and social services for undocumented immigrants and made undocumented children ineligible public schooling ● Federal court judge said it was unconstitutional ■ Anti-immigrant Proposition 227 terminated bilingual classes for students with limited English proficiency namely Latino/a immigrant students ■ HR 4437 was “Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act” ■ SB 1070: crime for an “alien” to be the state without documents and allowed police to stop and question suspicious individuals who look like undocumented immigrants ● Arizona v. United States: provision of the law was unconstitutional, but upheld that the police had the right to stop and question the immigrant status of individuals that determine to look like
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