POL SCI 32A Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Marriage License, Precarity, Pierre Bourdieu

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7 Jun 2018
Political Science 32A/International Studies 32A
University of California, Irvine
Fall 2017
TTh 2:00-3:20, HH 178
Dr. Kevin Olson
SSPB 5207
Office hours TTh 4:00-5:00
-diversity = local and global manifestations
-highly complex, modern societies, modern economies, urbanization, globalization
-Los Angeles = global mega city
-diversity is a very imprecise idea, no clear definition; not always ethnic makeup
-Four dilemmas of diversity: race, intersectionality, social mobility, globalization
-still problems with diversity, something we still need to examine today; Ferguson, etc., help
make this case
-Diversity creates dilemma (for social mobility)
Dilemma 1: race
-notion that human race = composed of different people not as popular anymore
-facial measurement = correlation with race (idea from the past); skull (cranium), supposed to
contain racial information; actually more variation within "races" than between them; cranial
capacity before defined the racial intelligence
-early 20th century determined that race has no biological basis; question about culture and not
-politics and economics masked as science were what defined race as a science; race built from
exploitation of people
Dilemma 2: intersectionality
-intersectionality = overlap of race, gender, ethnicity, class, sexuality within specific people
-minority = people not of majority population
-Irvine = medium diversity, high income
Dilemma 3: social mobility
-social mobility = ability to move up in society
-identity matter in social mobility
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Dilemma 4: globalization
-Marco Polo traveled and met people that as a European did not look, act like him
-Marco Polo was more on a voyage of commercial exploration; brought things back to Europe
that established great wealth; importing things that were completely unknown in europe brought
great business opportunities
-globalization: globalized commerce facilitated by technology; basis of our economy; fast, cheap
consumer economy facilitated by globalization trade.
-not everyone benefits from this system of economics, trade
-system encourages entrepreneurial attitude; makes existence marginal and difficult
-identity and immigration
-1854 Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
A hierarchy of races, in terms of: intelligence, beauty, strength
The vast importance attached to him at the time for being the person that took
these ideas and actually created a reference point for this; became a centerpiece
for thinking at the time
Eugenics established that there were people that were naturally inferior;
genetically, they were seen as inferior and this was used to persuade people that
the genetically inferior was dragging the rest of the human race down
Arthur de Gobineau (author)
Franz Boas: "New Evidence in Regard to the Instability of Human Types", 1911
No racial identity was revealed by science of race at the time;
radicalization of what Finot was argued
Father of Anthropology
Jean Finot (1905) tried to conclude that as a biology, race didn't work; concluded
that race is a prejudice
Boas studied Puerto Rican immigrants and Indian immigrants
Alain Locke (1885-1954)
BA, Harvard (English and Philosophy); First African-American Rhodes
Scholar; Hertford College, Oxford
Professor at Howard University
PhD in Philosophy at Harvard 1918; dissertation: The Problem of
Classification in the Theory of Value"
Went on to right The New Negro; huge cultural impact; widely known as
father of Harlem Renaissance
Explained that even if differences between race do exist, you can't get
from differences to hierarchy as quickly as de Gobineau does
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Political control and cultural diversity made Roman Empire strong
Locke says modern empires are different
Missionaries important in process of creating modern empire because
Religion core of Spanish civilization, so priests helping to make people Spanish;
integration of new colony into their economy; Locke tries to point out the cultural
assimilation that takes place in this
Locke says the point of this is to encourage the to become a market for goods of
the colonizer
Locke argues that colonialism is economic; about creating markets for parent
country; if you could convert the people of your new colony to want to be your
race, they will willingly contribute to the economy
Based on colonialism, British power translates into racial hierarchy; because
colonies were seen as part of them, British thought they could compare
themselves to their new people, therefore making them inferior
Force of adoption of culture supposedly makes that culture favorable (not
supposed to make sense)
Dilemma 1: Race (part 2)
-Immanuel Wallerstein: professor in Sociology at Yale University
-studied nationalism in Africa; talks about modern economies and has advantage of economic
-provides economic interpretation of race
-talks about capitalist economy and its relation to culture in terms of ideology (organized system
of beliefs); argues that capitalism as an economic system has logic that treats people harshly.
When that happens it calls into question the legitimacy of the economy
-universalism comes out of religious traditions; rooted in monotheism (idea that all people are
the same before God)
-ex. "We hold these truths to be self-evident. That all men are created equal"; makes no
differentiation between people
-we study particularism; diversity is a form of particularity; universalism and particularism are
contradicting ideas
-South Africa was last civilized state to have legalized institutionalized racism; European, Indian,
Colored, Bantu were the four classifications
-Bantu organized into townships
-Government had monopolized by whites, FW de Klerk last President before apartheid ended;
Nelson Mandela succeeded him; 1991 apartheid ended
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