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Lecture 14

PSY BEH 11C Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Developmental Disorder, The Roots, Insomnia

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Elizabeth Martin

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PsyBeh 11C
Professor Martin
Week 9 Lecture 1
Mood Disorders
Roots of Schizophrenia
- genetic factors
- biological factors
- psychological factors
- reactions to stress (tend to be more reactive to stress)
- e.g., immigrant groups
- group of people from Caribbean moved to UK -> found rates of
schizophrenia higher in those that immigrated vs those that stayed
in home country
- idea is that stress of immigrating activated diathesis to develop
- urban areas
- found at higher rates in urban areas
- traditionally seen as more stressful environment
- socioeconomic stress
- higher rates in those of lower SES
- downward drift hypothesis -> one’s poor mental health status makes
them unable to attain higher status than parents so stay in lower economic
status (unable to hold a job, seek services, etc.)
- “developmental” disorder
- problems through life -> things associated with disorder at all stages
- genetic component, prenatal factors, birth complications, etc.
- awareness of mental health issues
- can be aware of psychosis & still have a schizophrenia diagnosis
- regardless of disorder people can have insight into symptoms
- can realize that symptoms are part of illness
Change from DSM-IV to DSM 5
- DSM IV had just one category -> mood disorders
- DSM 5 -> depressive disorders (unipolar) v. bipolar & related disorders
- creation of 2 separate categories
Mood Continuum
- depression & mania pole
- if you think of mood as a continuum:
- depression means staying at one pole
- bipolar means going between the two
Depressive Disorders
- common feature is atypical mood
- can be a sad mood, empty mood (no feeling)
- body & cognitive changes

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- how much energy you have, physiological arousal
- changes in thinking & how concentrate or pay attention
- impairment in functioning
- symptoms have to be so bad that they are impacting some area of life very
*for the disorders we will discuss, cause is not a medical condition or due to use of a
- in DSM can have depressive disorders that are caused by these things but ruled
out in what discussed today
Major Depressive Disorder
- what people tend to refer to as simply ‘depression
- aka unipolar depression
- major depressive episode: 5 or more of the following present most of the day, nearly
every day during the same 2 week period
- depressed mood*
- diminished pleasure or interest in activities (anhedonia)*
- appetite increase/decrease or significant weight increase/decrease
- insomnia or hypersomnia
- psychomotor agitation or retardation (i.e., tapping foot over & over; move slow)
- fatigue/loss of energy
- feelings of worthlessness/inappropriate guilt (can by psychotic)
- diminished ability to think or concentrate/indecisiveness
- suicidal ideation or suicide attempt
*need to have at least one of these: depressed mood or anhedonia
- are the two cardinal symptoms of the disorder
- can have both but need at least one
In Addition to a Major Depressive Episode
- cause significant impairment
- never have had a manic or hypomanic episode
- if you have then you become part of the other category
- MDD is NOT just having a bad day or a bad week despite social use of term ‘depressed’
Major Depressive Disorder
- lifetime prevalence
- 7-12% in men & 20-25% in women
- 1.5 3: 1 (women : men)
- onset increases at puberty; incidence peaks in 20s
- highly comorbid with anxiety disorders
Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
1. depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, for 2+ years
- hard to remember a time when they were not depressed
- not sure when it started
2. two or more of the following:
- appetite increase/decrease
- insomnia or hypersomnia
- low energy or fatigue
- low self-esteem
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