PSY BEH 100 Lecture 7: Week 7 02/21 P100

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior

MORALS IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM: Prisoner’s dilemma → best thing to do is defect (selfishness) to avoid the big loss, until you have to see that person again Behavioral cues of morality: Conflict resolution: -Reconciliation: whenever there is a fight, the aggressor will try to make peace to the person they aggressed -studies of pairs in conflict - post-conflict interaction -Control Role: 3rd party alpha male will try to break up a fight → not kin-driven (when kin are involved, they won’t necessarily take sides) -Low ranking females are often protected by high ranking males; when males are separated (removed from enclosure) from females, them females were put at risk of injury. -whenever a fight would start, females would run to tunnels and scream (cue) the males to help Sympathy and empathy: Groundwork for other altruistic behaviors - had to understand that help was needed -Elephants display some levels of empathy -UNderstanding of goal-directedness, looked at perspective, intentions, knowledge-belief, emotion, etc. Active Consoling: -chimpanzees will affiliate with certain other chimps under 3 conditions: -for recipient of conflict, within the 1st 5 minutes after conflict, when the conflict is severe -why don’t we see this in rhesus macaques? -unlike chimps, they have strict social hierarchies with big dangers for lower ranks -essentially, the cost is too big → they won’t engage in true altruism because of this -illustrates a big difference between humans and other animals -limited cost-benefit analysis Fairness: -humans get angry when things are unfair -study: dogs asked to “give the paw” → when successful at giving paw, either given low value treat (bread) or -condition 1 - both given bread (low value) -both happy -condition 2: target dog given low value treat, partner given sausage (rewarded differently) - both happy -condition 3: target dog given nothing, partner bread (only one rewarded) - target dog unhappy -some idea of fairness, but no understanding of treat value - don’t live in a complex social system -Capuchin monkeys reject equal pay: placed side by side (one given cucumber, the other given grape - a better food) Revenge: -animals engage in revenge, suggesting they understand how they should be treated -chimps will only share with individuals who share with them -rhesus macaques will harm children Why do animals have morals? -less complex reasons than humans Kin selection and direct reciprocity Example: vampire bat -food source is blood → will engage in direct reciprocity Will share under 3 conditions: -they know the other bat, the other bat had never failed to reciprocate, the benefit is higher than the cost -there is one exception: KIN SELECTION -explains extreme cooperation -they all build and defend nests, have highly juvenile (altricial) offspring, have cooperative rearing (alloparenting) Why similarities? Convergent evolution - you may not necessarily be related, but with the same environmental pressures come similar adaptations -humans alloparent → prefer raising a child when we have another person to help us raise them (elephants do this too) -altricial young → leads to increased investment -raising a child to maturity requires 10-13 million calories beyond what the child can
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