PSY BEH 100 Lecture 7: Week 7 02/23 P100

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Psychology and Social Behavior

CULTURE AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION: WHAT MAKES US HUMAN: Morality helps us regulate social relations Moral Emotions: -behaviors motivated by emotions Kin selection → fundamental, cooperative thing any species does (good to people with whom you share your genes) -if you did not have anger, it would be maladaptive if you are constantly encountering prisoner dilemma type situations (being screwed over by others) -if you didn’t feel embarrassment or shame, you would be a socially unpopular person Positive emotions: -other oriented: Sympathy - makes you able to reach out to someone in a situation of need (reciprocity) Gratitude (opposite of contempt) - maintain reciprocal relationships; sense of gratitude entices reciprocal behavior Admiration (opposite of disgust) -self-oriented: Pride (opposite of shame) - motivates you to pursue those positive behaviors Habitats of Our Animal Relatives: -in about 50k years, we colonized pretty much every corner of the world Humans are different: -habitat ranges throughout the world -complex tools are crucial for survival -we have large social groups -extensive variation in subsistence and social arrangements -exceptional ability to adapt to local conditions -we engage in obviously maladaptive behaviors -false beliefs → (strange religious cults) -dangerous, useless hobbies -reduced fertility -self-sacrificial altruism Why? The standard evolutionary psych answer: -we have this stone age mind that’s trapped in the modern world (mismatch hypothesis) Human accomplishment? → we’re smarter than the average bear (so much smarter) Pinker → we have these genius brains that can look at the environment and figure things out instantly Inuit flourished where explorers died: -adaptive, culturally transmitted info -subsistence skills, specialized tech, extensive knowledge of arctic, social organization -culturally evolved adaptations, not just intelligence, allowed the inuit to flourish -intelligence itself is not enough → cultural adaptations are needed dual-Inheritance theory: -human evolution is the product of dual-inheritances: genes and culture -culture happens in a similar Darwinian process (genetic evolution) -variation (many different ways to build a bow and arrow) -selection -transmission (info passed down through direct teaching our mirroring) -cultural info that proves to be useful (and sticky) gets passed down to the next generation -culture allows accumulation of small improvements (cumulative culture) -small improvements can lead to complex adaptations without prescience or genius -just needs the blind processes of trial and error Climactic variability during the EEA of social learning -during that time, the variability of the climate our species
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