Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 4 - Health.rtf

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Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Lecture 4 - Health Life Span Developmental Psychology th January 25 , 2012 Lecture 4: Health  Health, Illness, and Disease  Nutrition & Fitness Life-Span Developmental Model of Health  Health is a lifelong process. It is influenced by personal choices over the lifespan  Health is determined by both genetic and environmental influences  Health is multidimensional: physical, mental, and social well-being; not just the absence of disease  Changes in health involve both gains and losses, improvements and declines  Health occurs in a sociohistorical context and can be enhanced or constrained by social and historical factors Health: Infancy and Childhood  Improvement in health due to vaccinations  Diptheria, Polio, Measles, etc.  20% of children do not receive the recommended vaccines; more vulnerable to illnesses; Lower SES less access to care and vaccines  Well baby visits  Accidents: leading cause of death in children  Choking/swallowing objects, falls, poisoning with household products, burns, car accidents  Parental smoking  Increase in risk for SIDS and asthma  Parents’ education and SES  Less education more likely to have poor or fair health  Particularly true for African-American and white children, less true for Hispanic and Asian children, whose families have strong social networks that cut across educational and SES levels Health: Adolescence  Leading causes of death: Accidents (mostly motor) and violence (homicides and suicides)  Alcohol Use: 1 of 4 high school students report occasional heavy or binge drinking  Higher risk for…  Smoking and addiction to cigarettes  Sex with multiple partners and unprotected sex pregnancies and STDs  Car accidents due to drunk driving  Physical fights, academic problems, illegal behaviors  Parental caring and monitoring less risk taking  Smoking, drinking, using marijuana, getting into fights, and sexual activity  Role models  Eating dinner w/ parent decreases risky behaviors  Peer pressure health-compromising behaviors  Health-enhancing behaviors: healthy eating, exercising, wearing seatbelts  More likely if: participate in school-organized activities, availability of positive community resources, secure attachment to parents Health: Young Adulthood  Fewer colds and infections than childhood, fewer chronic illnesses than middle and late adulthood  College students: Knowledge vs. action  Unrealistic, optimistic beliefs about future health risks  Draw on physical resources for pleasure, bouncing back easily from physical stress and abuse pushing too far  Negative effects might not show up until later in adulthood Health: Middle and Late Adulthood  Fewer colds and infections than childhood, but chronic diseases are more common  Most common chronic disorders  Women: Arthritis, hypertension, hearing impairments, sinus problems  Men: hypertension, arthritis, hearing impairments, and heart disease  3x more poor than non-poor adults report that chronic disorders limit their activities  Osteoporosis: loss of bone tissue  Women more vulnerable; leading cause of broken bones in women  Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, estrogen, and exercise  Leading causes of death  Middle age and 65-74 years: Cancer  75+ years: Cardiovascular disease  Dementia: broad category for any neurological disorder characterized by the deterioration of functioning  Lose ability to care for themselves, recognize people and surroundings  23% of women and 17% of men over 85 years old  Alzheimer Disease: progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical function  5.3 million in U.S.; Projected: 10 million baby boomers  Deficiency in acetylcholine memory  Brain deteriorates and shrinks  Unsure of cause, but risk factors include: age, genetics, lifestyle  Early indicator: Mild Cognitive Impairment  Deficits in episodic memory  Drug treatment: Increase acetylcholine; regulat
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