Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 3 - Physical Development and Biological Aging.rtf

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Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Physical Development and Biological Aging Life Span Developmental Psychology th January 18 , 2012 Lecture 3: Physical Dev. And Aging 1. Body Growth and Change 2. Brain Development 3. Biological Theories of Aging Body Growth and Change: Infancy (birth-2y)  Rapid increase in height and weight in infancy, then slower gains in childhood  At birth: 20 inches long, 7.5 lbs  Doubled weight by 4 months; triples by 1 year  12-24 months: slower rate of growth; 32-35 inches tall, 26-32 lbs Body Growth and Change: Early Childhood (2-5y)  Rate of growth slows each year  Girls slightly lighter and smaller; girls have more fatty tissue, boys have more muscle  Slim down, trunks of bodies lengthen, but heads are still large for their bodies  Preschool: Individual variation in growth.  Causes:  Ethnic origin and nutrition  Urban, middle SES, and first-born taller than rural, lower SES, and later-born  Smoking during pregnancy  Growth hormone deficiency  Illness  Neglect or physical abuse  Individuals who are unusually short on average score lower on tests of…  Intelligence  Achievement  Motor skills … but few children score outside the normal range Body Growth and Change: Middle and Late Childhood (6-11 y)  Slow, consistent growth  2-3 inches and 5 to 7 lbs per year  Age 8, average 4ft 2in and 56 lbs  Muscle mass and strength increase, fat decreases; taller and slimmer Body Growth and Change: Puberty (~9-16y) and Adolescence (11-18y)  Puberty: period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes during early adolescence  Onset and duration affected by…  Heredity  Environmental Factors  Weight and body fat  Two phases of puberty:  Adrenarche (6-9 years): hormonal changes in the adrenal glands  Gonadarche: sexual maturation, physical changes  Girls Onset: 9-10 yrs in non-Latino white, 8-9 yrs in African-American  Menarche: first menstrual period; occurs mid to late gonadarche  Boys: Onset: 10-11 yrs  Spermarche: first ejaculation; occurs early to mid gonadarche  Physical changes  Girls  Growth spurt  Enlargement of breasts  Growth of body hair  Fat distribution  Widening of hips  Facial structure round and soft  Boys  Growth spurt  Growth of genitalia  Body and facial hair  Deepening of voice; Adam’s apple  Increased muscle mass  Fat distribution  Widening of shoulders  Facial structure angular  The Secular Trend in Puberty: the historical trend in industrialized societies toward earlier maturation  U.S. Age of menarche: Present: 12.5 yrs, 1840s: 17 yrs  Earlier due to improved health and nutrition  Other factors  Depressed mothers early puberty for girls  Man other than father in home early puberty for girls  Lower SES later puberty for girls (tied to nutrition and health)  Product of an interaction between heredity and the environment  Psychological Consequences of Maturation  Concern about appearance, whether too tall or too short, too developed or not developed  Girls: poor body image likely due to typical weight gain  Boys: more positive reactions and body image; welcome weight gain, muscle mass and voice changes  Parent-child relationship is restructured  Early vs. Late Maturation  Early maturing boys  Judged to be more socially competent, attractive, and self assured  More socially accepted  Increased risk of substance use and bullying  Late maturing boys  Are more anxious and less confident  Adjustment problems  Score lower on achievement tests  Less likely to drink alcohol  Early maturing girls  More disadvantaged than early maturing boys  Lower self-esteem  Risk for eating disorders  Less popular  More depression & anxiety    Less likely to graduate H.S.  Socialize with older peers dating, smoking, drinking, sex, and problem behavior  Cohabit and marry earlier  Late maturing girls  Some anxiety while waiting, but not as disadvantaged as late maturing boys  More academic achievement  Long-term consequences of off-time maturation?  Differences fade with time – no difference in academic performance or popularity by late high school  Consequences of girls’ risky behavior addiction, teen pregnancy  Early mat. girls: lifetime of adjustment problems, such as anxiety and depression  Early maturing boys become more rigid and conforming, whereas late maturing boys learn to cope in creative ways and had a more positive identity Body Growth and Change: Early Adulthood (20s and 30s) 
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