Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 8 - Intelligence.rtf

8 Pages

Psychology and Social Behavior
Course Code
Kara Thorsen

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Intelligence Life Span Developmental Psychology th February 8 , 2012 Intelligence  The Concept of Intelligence  The Development of Intelligence  Controversies and Group Comparisons (Textbook)  The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity (Textbook) What Is Intelligence?  Ability to solve problems and adapt and learn from everyday experiences  Definitions vary… o Thinking and memory skills o Ability to think abstractly or solve problems effectively o Includes creativity and interpersonal skills o One general cognitive ability or many specific abilities o Early definitions: innate ability Measuring Intelligence: The Stanford-Binet Test (Alfred Binet; Lewis Terman)  Originally intended to identify students who needed special help 1  Content: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short- term memory  Test components: o Mental age (MA): person’s level of mental development relative to others o Chronological age (CA): age from birth o Intelligence quotient (IQ): individual MA divided CA, multiplied by 100 o Normal distribution: symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean  The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores The Wechsler Scales  Different versions for adults, children/adolescents, and preschoolers o Verbal Comprehension Index o Perceptual Reasoning Index o Working Memory Index o Processing Speed Index o Full Scale IQ: All Indices o General Ability Index: VCI + PRI The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests  Tools dependent upon administrator’s skill and knowledge  Substantially correlated with school performance 2  IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies  Measures only current performance  Should be used as part of a test battery; other factors also affect success Theories of Multiple Intelligences  Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities  Savant syndrome: The presence of a developmental disability (e.g., autism) and one or more areas of expertise, abilities, or brilliance that are in contrast with the individuals overall level of ability Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory o Both general intelligence (g) and a number of specific intelligences (s) Thurstone’s Multiple-Factor Theory o Seven Abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number ability, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning, perceptual speed Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage o Eight types of intelligence: verbal, math, spatial, interpersonal, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills 3 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory  Three main types of intelligence  Analytic: cognitive processes; ability to acquire and store knowledge, construct and select strategies, make decisions, solve problems, translate thoughts into performance  Creative: Ability to solve novel problems quickly and solve familiar problems in an automatic way; insight and creativity  Practical: “street smarts”; ability to get out of trouble and get along with people; Knowing how to get along in the world (not taught in school) Emotional Intelligence  The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively  Four aspects o Perceiving and expressing emotions (perspective taking) o Understanding emotion and emotional knowledge (e.g., the roles that emotions play in relationships) o Use of emotions to facilitate thought (good mood creative thinking) o Managing emotions in self and others (e.g, ability to control anger) Do People Have One or Many Inte
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