Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 7 - Information Processing.rtf

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University of California - Irvine
Psychology and Social Behavior
Kara Thorsen

Information Processing Life Span Developmental Psychology February 1, 2012 Lecture 7 - Information Processing  The Information ProcessingApproach  Theory of Mind (Metacognition)  Attention  Memory  Thinking (Textbook only)  Metacognition (Textbook only) What Is the Information-ProcessingApproach?  Analyzes the ways people process information about their world o Manipulation of information o Monitoring of information o Strategies created to deal with information o Effectiveness involves attention, memory, thinking  Constructivist; Gradual development (no no stages) Computers and Human Information Processing Speed of Processing Information  Fast processing speed efficient mental operations  Changes in speed processing are assessed using reaction time tasks o Improves dramatically through childhood and adolescence o Changes due to myelination or experience o Decline begins in middle adulthood; continues into late adulthood How does information processing lead to cognitive development?  Development results from… o Expanding information-processing capacity o Acquiring new knowledge and strategies  Mechanisms of Change o Encoding: Mechanism by which external information gets into your memory o Automaticity: Ability to process info. with little or no effort o Strategy Construction: Discovering new procedures for processing information o Metacognition: Cognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing”  Tetris: Present Mindfulness Consequence Mindfulness  Strategies: gap filling spatial rotation anticipating consequences Metacognition: Theory of Mind (ToM)  Ability to understand the mental states of the self and others  Develops during the preschool period in typically developing children.  Most common measure: False Belief Tasks. False Belief: The Sally-Anne Task ToM in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  Majority of children withASD demonstrate a delay or deficit in ToM o Related to the hallmark socio-communicative deficits inASD  Individual differences have been observed in children with and withoutASD o Why? ToM in Adulthood  Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task  On average, woman perform better than men  Adults withASD perform worse than typically developing adults What IsAttention?  Focusing of mental resources  Three ways attention can be allocated o Sustained attention:Ability to maintain attention to selected stimulus over prolonged period; also called vigilance o Selective attention: Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant, while ignoring others o Divided attention: Concentrating on more than one activity at a time Attention in Infancy  Newborns can detect contours and fixate  4-month-olds have selective attention  Attention to novel stimuli o Habituation: Familiarity decreased attention/response o Dishabituation: Change in stimulus recovery of a habituated response/attention  Joint attention: individuals focus on same object or event and requires… o Ability to track another’s behavior o One person directing another’s attention o Reciprocal interaction o Begins in 7-to-8 month old infants o Importance: learning from others, especially language Attention in Childhood andAdolescence  Sustained attention School readiness  Control over attention shows changes o Preschooler attends to external salient stimuli, whereas a child of 6 to 7 attends to relevant information o Ability to shift attention increases with age; allows for more complex tasks  Improvement in divided attention due to… o More resources available (increased processing speed, capacity, and automaticity) o More skilled at directing resources Attention inAdulthood  Older adults may not be able to focus on relevant information as effectively as younger adults o Visual attention affects driving: making turns, yielding right of way, merging  Less adept at selective attention  Divided attention: engage in conversation and drive o Older adults (50-80) performed worse than younger adults What Is Memory?  Retention of information over time  Allows humans to connect yesterday to today  Is imperfect Constructing Memories  Schema theory (different from Piaget’s Schemes) o The theory that people construct and reconstruct memories
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