Psy Beh 101D - Lecture 11 - Self Identity and Personality.rtf

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Department
Psychology and Social Behavior
Course
PSY BEH 101D
Professor
Kara Thorsen
Semester
Winter

Description
The Self, Identity, and Personality Life Span Developmental Psychology th February 29 , 2012 The Self, Identity, and Personality  The Self o Self-Understanding o Self-Esteem and Self-Concept  Identity o Erikson: Identity vs. Identity Confusion o Developmental Changes: Marcia - Identity Statuses  Personality o Trait theories and Big Five Factors o Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation o Stability and Change  Personality: Enduring personal characteristics  Self: Characteristics of a person  Identity: Understanding self; who you are, what you believe in, what you want to do Self-Understanding  Cognitive representation of the self o Based on roles and membership categories  Infancy: Visual self-recognition  Early Childhood o Are self-aware o Self-understanding  Confusion of self, mind, and body  Self-descriptions are physical, concrete, active, and unrealistic positive overestimations o Understanding others  Individual differences in social understanding linked to caregivers  Middle and Late Childhood o Self-understanding: 5 key changes  Internal characteristics emphasized  More referencing in social descriptions  More use of social comparisons  Distinguish between real self and ideal self  Realistic in self-evaluations  Adolescence o Abstract and idealistic o Self-conscious; preoccupied with self o Contradictions within the self – multiple roles in different contexts realized o Fluctuating self over time and situations o Compare real and ideal selves  Possible selves: what persons may be, would like to be, and are afraid of becoming o Self-integration in sense of identity  Changes in Self-Understanding inAdulthood o Self-Awareness  Awareness of strengths and weaknesses  Improves in young and middle adulthood o Possible Selves  Get fewer and more concrete with age o Life Review  Some in middle age, common in older adults  Evaluations of successes and failures Self-Esteem and Self-Concept  Self-esteem: Global evaluative dimension of the self  Self-concept: Domain-specific evaluations of the self Issues with Self-Esteem  Modest correlations link self-esteem and school performance; links vary between adult job performance and self-esteem  Self-esteem related to perceived physical appearance across life-span  High self-esteem increases happiness  Low self-esteem linked with depression, suicide, eating disorders Self-Esteem in Childhood and Adolescence  Self-evaluations become more realistic and accurate during the elementary school years  Majority of adolescents have positive self-image cross-culturally  Girls’self-esteem is lower than boys’by middle school years Self-Esteem in Adulthood  Some researchers find drops in self-esteem in late adulthood; others don’t  Older adults with positive self-esteem o May not see losses as negatively o Decrease in knowledge-related goals o Increase in emotional-related goals o Compare themselves to other older adults What is Identity?  Self-portrait of many identities: o Vocational/career o Political o Religious o Relationship o Achievement/intellectual o Sexual o Cultural/ethnic o Interests o Personality o Physical Erikson’s Ideas on Identity  Identity versus identity confusion o Adolescents examine who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life  Psychosocial moratorium o Gap between childhood security and adult autonomy, part of adolescent identity
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